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#1 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:50 AM

Henry Koplik, in 1856,was the one who discovered the features of Measles. The name "measles" comes from the Middle English "maselen" meaning "many little spots" referring to the rash that is characteristic feature of measles. Rubeola refers to the red color of the rash. Measles is common in childhood, with more than 90% of infants and children infected by 12 years of age. Measles is among the most readily transmitted of all infectious diseases. The average time between exposure to the measles virus and the development of symptoms is from 10 to 14 days.
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If we look in the mouth at [the first twenty-four to forty-eight hours of the invasion] we see a redness of the fauces; perhaps, not in all cases, a few spots on the soft palate. On the buccal mucous membrane and the inside of the lips, we invariably see…small irregular spots, of a bright red color. In the centre of each spot, there is noted, in strong daylight, a minute bluish white speck. These…are absolutely pathognomonic of beginning measles.

-Henry Koplik, 1896

#2 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:51 AM

Measles is due to a virus that is easily spread, known as the 'paramyxo' virus. Measles can also be passed by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected persons or objects contaminated with the measles virus

Typical measles begins with fever, runny nose , cough, and red eyes. The very characteristic spots within the mouth (called Koplik's spots) appear 2 to 4 days later, are found on the inside of the cheeks opposite the 1st and 2nd upper molars, they look like little grains of white sand surrounded by a red ring. Soreness of throat occurs along with inflammation of the airways. The rash appears 3 to 5 days after the onset of symptoms. The rash progresses from the head downward. It begins below the ears and on the side of the neck as small irregular bumps that soon increase in size and spread rapidly (within 1-2 days) to the trunk and limbs as they begin to fade on the face. Bleeding spots and bruises can occur with very severe rashes. Patient can have very high fever up to 104° F. The eyes are very sensitive to light (photophobia).

#3 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:52 AM

Diagnosis is carried out on the basis of the symptoms, a definitive diagnosis of measles can be made only by seeing Koplik’s spots, the tiny white spots most often seen on the inside of the cheeks.

#4 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:52 AM

How can Measles be treated ?

The child is isolated and excluded from school for about 10 days. Antibiotics are given only if there is a bacterial infection. The eyes may be very sensitive to light and have an irritating discharge. Wash the eyes by wiping them with a clean, wet washcloth but avoid rubbing them. Keep lights dim or the room darkened. Sunglasses may also help. Increase fluids to 12-16 glasses of liquid (8 ounces or 250 ml per glass) a day during the fever. You should drink enough fluids to cause urination every 2 hours. Eat a well balanced diet. To prevent itching of rashes a calamine lotion maybe applied. Antihistamines may also help.

How can measles be prevented?

The way to prevent measles is by measles immunization: The standard MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine is given in two dosages. The first dose should be at 12-15 months of age. The second vaccination should be at 4-6 years of age.

#5 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:56 AM

Mumps is a contagious viral infection spread by droplet infection. This typically causes enlargement of one or more of the salivary glands. These glands are located on either side of the face, below the ears.

This gives an appearance rather like a "hamster with food in it's cheeks"

Etiology and Incidence: This is less communicable than measles or chickenpox. One attack usually confers permanent immunity, even though only one salivary gland has been enlarged. About 25 to 30% of cases are clinically in apparent.

Swellings appeared about the ears…. In all cases they disappeared without giving trouble, neither did any of them come to suppuration, as is common in swellings from other causes. They were of a lax, large, diffused character, without inflammation or pain… In some instances earlier, and in others later, inflammations with pain seized sometimes one of the testicles, and sometimes both.

-Hippocrates,(460-375BC)


#6 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:57 AM

What are the causes of Mumps ?

Mumps is caused by a virus known as a Paramyxovirus. It is transmitted mainly by infected saliva. The saliva is infectious for approximately six days prior to the onset of swelling of the salivary glands in the cheeks called the parotid glands. The individual may be infectious for up to two weeks after the onset of swelling of the glands, but the peak period of infectivity is from a day or two before the onset of the swelling until very shortly after the swelling begins

#7 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:57 AM

What are the symptoms of Mumps ?

The main symptoms are severe swelling and soreness of the cheeks and jaw. Mumps may also lead to encephalitis or meningitis (inflammation of the brain or the lining of the central nervous system). Symptoms appear 3 to 7 days after parotid swelling begins and may include: high fever, stiff neck, headache, nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, convulsions/seizures, and other signs of brain involvement.

#8 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:58 AM

How can we diagnose Mumps ?

Diagnosis is usually based on the swelling of the salivary glands in both cheeks (the parotid glands). Mumps can be diagnosed by a blood test or culture.

Persons who have not been immunized against mumps are the main risk group. Unvaccinated school-aged children are most at risk.

#9 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:59 AM

How can Mumps be treated ?

There is no specific treatment for mumps. Persons with mumps should drink plenty of fluids, get bed rest, and take medicine to control fever. Warm moist towels can help relieve the discomfort of the swelling. Children with mumps should be kept home from school or day care until 9 days after the swelling begins, or until the swelling goes away.

Prophylaxis

The patient should remain in isolation until glandular swelling subsides. Mumps immune globulin and immune serum globulin are not helpful.

Live mumps virus vaccine is the agent of choice for active immunization. It is not yet clear whether revaccination is required to maintain lifelong immunity. Postexposure vaccination does not protect against mumps from that exposure.

Complications
Severe complications are rare. However, mumps can cause:

a) Hearing loss
B) Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
c) Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
d) Swollen, painful testicles
e) Pancreatitis

#10 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 02:59 AM

Introduction to Dyslexia

The British medical literature has the first description of a specific reading disability in 1896. A "bright and intelligent boy" who had great difficulty learning to read. This intrigued the educators and subsequently more similar cases were recorded and dyslexic disorders were officially recognized as a learning disorder. There are many definitions of Dyslexia, however it is traditionally defined as "an unexpected difficulty learning to read despite intelligence, motivation, and educational opportunities".

We are now aware that dyslexia is a disorder that affects millions of people all around the world. In-fact it is said that 5 -15% of the world population i.e approx. one billion people, maybe diagnosed to be suffering from various degrees of dyslexia.

The world Dyslexia -'Dys' Means "difficulty" and 'lexia' means "Words" essentially gives one the definition of what dyslexia is in a nut shell - " A person with difficulty in words".

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:00 AM

About Dyslexia

This disorder is one type of specific learning disability. It commonly affects the person to have difficulty in verbal skills, abstract reasoning, hand-eye coordination, concentration, perception, memory and social adjustment. These problems result in the individual having poor grades and become classified as an under achiever.

The domino affect has started. Due to this the dyslexic child is often labeled as lazy, low intellect and unmotivated. Eventually this affects the child's personality resulting in a low self-esteem. The Child often takes on the role of becoming the class clown, being rebellious, feeling like a misfit and keeping to themselves, difficult, refusing to attend school

#12 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:00 AM

About Dyslexia

Some of the common symptoms of a dyslexic are the following:
Difficulty in comprehending
Difficulty in expression, written or oral
Understanding letters phonetically or otherwise
Difficulty in reading
Inability to memorize (Sequential Problem)
Difficulty in spelling and reading - (specially with english Phonetic as it's a mixture of different languages
Difficulty in doing simple mathematical problems
Difficulty in attending to class instructions, and gets distracted too much (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- ADD/ADHD)
Learning any new language


Some children may initially have fewer problems in learning a language in school, but their problem may be aggravated as they learn more intricate parts of a language like grammar, or understanding of textual matter.

#13 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:01 AM

Understanding Dyslexia

Although dyslexia is a learning disorder in an otherwise normal person, it has been proved that the brain of a dyslexic person develops differently from that of others.

Studies has shown that the inborn wiring system of the brain related to developing mental skills is different in dyslexics and hence being the base cause of this disorder.

The wiring system of the brain or the neural pathway is the process that codes the information the sensory organs receive and stores it in the brain for future assimilation. This information is later used to assess situations and develop response patterns to the situations, increase the muscular co-ordinations according to the situations, or even help us in understanding and comprehending the constant inputs our brain is getting in terms of every day activities, school procedures etc.

In a dyslexic child, even these minor acts of comprehension and usage may take a lot more time and skill than a normal child.
Hence one school of thought has concluded that dyslexia is a condition that is largely inborn and not the result of poor parenting or environment. However another school of researches has strongly disagreed and believes that while dyslexia may sometimes be inborn it is often attributable to lack of phonics training when learning to read and the preponderance of the whole language system.

In one of the theories about dyslexia, researchers Geschwind and Galaburda had focused on other symptoms like creativity, visual abilities, left handedness, allergies etc to link it to raises in hormones like testosterone levels in pregnant mothers during the first trimester that may lead to a variant brain structure that may lead to dyslexia.

In other studies, dyslexia had been linked to genetic reasons. According to research conducted by M. M. Nothen and others, the inability to learn spellings can be linked to a gene called 15q21 of chromosome 15

Dyslexia is a life long condition and so, it may have different effect on an individual at different stages of life. It is seen that a dyslexic child may have great difficulty in coping with normal schoolwork although in other aspects like sporting activities or extra curricular activities he may show some interest and abilities. It is here that they need to be encouraged tremendously so that they can over come their low self-esteem.

#14 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:02 AM

Diagnose Dyslexia

A trained counselor, psychologist or psychiatrist can diagnose the problem of dyslexia. The child is tested for intelligence, academic abilities, ability of assess information and ability to use psychological processes of imagination, creativity, reasoning with language.

The family of the child will also needed to be assessed to understand family history. It is a combination off all these details which l provides the information whether the child is lagging in school because of dyslexia or any other problem.

Research has shown that this disorder is known to be more prominent in the male gender then in females. However awareness and help for this disorder is still not available as commonly as it should be. More over, diagnostic test can be quite expensive, treatment or help as well is found to be expensive.


Social-emotional Problems due Dyslexia

Dyslexic persons have been observed to be less socially or emotionally matured than their peers. This may cause poor self-image and fewer acceptances by peers. They may get more parental attention, causing the siblings to feel jealous of them.

A dyslexic person may react differently to social situations, because of their social immaturity, causing embarrassment to others. Later in life when language becomes one important way of expression, a dyslexic person may feel handicapped in establishing emotional bonding and social relationships.

A person suffering from dyslexia often is inconsistent in his performances. What they can do well today, they have difficulty in repeating it another day. Even if they are making errors in their outputs, the nature of errors may vary each time, confusing both the dyslexic person and his guide. Hence often a dyslexic person feels more anxious throughout the day than any other differently-abled person.

Some other emotions most commonly experienced by dyslexic person are anger at themselves and at others, depression due to inability to fit to the surroundings, frustration of not being able to perform to their satisfaction etc.

#15 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:02 AM

Treatment of Dyslexia

"You don't have to be perfect to be great. Team up with others whose strengths complement your weaknesses, and vice versa." -Andrew Dornenburg

Though the condition of dyslexia is life-long, the first step in treating the problem is early intervention. Earlier a dyslexic child is diagnosed, easier it is for counselors to help them. With proper guidance, a dyslexic child can overcome his difficulties to a large extent and have a better life. This is done in a two- phased approach. The first phase is teaching the child using a multi-sensory learning procedure. The second phase is the emotional support extended by the counselor.

The multi-sensory approach

The key to helping a dyslexic child is through multi-sensory learning methods. The academic concepts need to be broken into concepts that can be explained using multi-sensory inputs of touch smell and sound. Dr. Samuel Torrey Orton pioneered this technique in the mid 1920s in US.

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:02 AM

Treatment of Dyslexia

"You don't have to be perfect to be great. Team up with others whose strengths complement your weaknesses, and vice versa." -Andrew Dornenburg

Though the condition of dyslexia is life-long, the first step in treating the problem is early intervention. Earlier a dyslexic child is diagnosed, easier it is for counselors to help them. With proper guidance, a dyslexic child can overcome his difficulties to a large extent and have a better life. This is done in a two- phased approach. The first phase is teaching the child using a multi-sensory learning procedure. The second phase is the emotional support extended by the counselor.

The multi-sensory approach

The key to helping a dyslexic child is through multi-sensory learning methods. The academic concepts need to be broken into concepts that can be explained using multi-sensory inputs of touch smell and sound. Dr. Samuel Torrey Orton pioneered this technique in the mid 1920s in US.

Treatment of Dyslexia

As each letter is learned, children also learn to distinguish the sound of it. In a typical scenario of multi-sensory learning the teacher may make the sound and the child may be asked to write the letter.

Emotional support extended by the counselor/ teacher
A dyslexic child may need the help of a counselor who will be working in tandem with the instructor in school, so that between the teacher in the classroom and the counselor at other times, a dyslexic child gets the maximum help that will make him work in the same pace as his classmates.
It is important to remember here that dyslexia does not mean any disinterest to learn, but means an impediment to learning that will need some extra help. One way to help such children will be to give them extra time to finish their assignments, help them in taking down class notes etc. often taped books and texts help them learn better, as does the of a computer in helping them to write.
A dyslexic person will also be requiring counseling to deal with the stress of additional work hours, and emotional problems associated with it.

#17 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:03 AM

Technology of Dyslexics
There are some technologies available in the markets that are designed to help the dyslexic people. This technology includes both hardware and software.
Some of these are the following: HELP ReadTM - Also called Hawaii Education Literacy Project this program reads web pages and texts. The program supports English language and can perform a number of functions like customizing the pronunciation of mispronounced words, highlighting words or sentences while reading, looking up definitions, linking through the net to classic works of literature and many others. This is free software package that can be downloaded from the site the HELP Read site
TextAssist® 3.0 - this is a program that not only can perform some of the functions of HELP Read, but also some extra functions like ability to read any form of Windows applications like HTML, or Word, or emails. It also have increased text size and ability to highlight text as it reads.
Java Jive - this is a software jointly developed by IBM and Sun Computers for hands free PC operations for dyslexic and blind people. The new program is able to read aloud the icons in the screen along with instructions for using the keyboard in lieu of mouse.

#18 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:04 AM

Gene For Dyslexia Identified
'Nearer, my Dog, to thee?' - sounds odd? But it is a dyslexic's mode of writing where letters in words are often reversed.

The learning disability, dyslexia, has a genetic component, according to German researchers. And finding the causative gene could opens up ways for treatment.

Dyslexia generally affects family groups. Scientists at the National Genome Research Network report that they have located the dyslexia gene, denoted as DCDC2, the presence of which makes a person five times more likely to develop the disorder.

The gene could disturb a person's brain development, the scientists report. People with dyslexia generally have difficulty remembering, recognizing, or reversing written letters, words and numbers. They tend to read backwards and maintain a poor handwriting. Reading and writing can also be a severe challenge.

In Germany, dyslexia affects five million people. Studies say 5 to 12 percent of school-age children are affected, with boys being the victims twice as often as girls.

Human genetics expert Johannes Schumacher, one of the researchers, said that the discovery of the gene would pave the way for finding treatment for the disorder. "The unusual thing is that it is one of the first illness genes at all to be found in the area of reading and writing disabilities. Through it, we could see that people who were very seriously affected by this reading and spelling disability could be significantly linked to genetic changes," he told German public broadcaster WDR.

#19 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:07 AM

Asthma is a condition that affects airways the small tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs.
In children with asthma, airways are swollen and inflamed. When these inflamed airways come into contact with an asthma trigger, symptoms of asthma appear.

What are the Symptoms?
Coughing
Wheezing
Tight chest
Getting short of breath

What are the triggers?

Cold or flu (viral infection), Cigarette smoke, car fumes, paint fumes, Exercise (especially on a cold dry day), Pollen, Furry feathery animals/ pets/ toys, House dust mite (beds, carpets, soft toys)

#20 Dr. Teeth

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Posted 25 June 2006 - 03:08 AM

What happens to the airways?
When a child comes into contact with an asthma trigger, the muscles around the walls of the airways tighten so that the airway becomes narrower. The lining of the airway swells and produces sticky mucus. As the airways narrow, it becomes difficult for air to move in and out and the child finds it difficult to breath.This may be accompanied by a wheezing or whistling noise.

Can it become serious?
Doctors often use the words mild, moderat and severe to describe asthma. Below are some guidelines explaining what they mean.

Mild:

Cough or a wheeze is present, but the child plays happily and feeds well. Sleep is undisturbed by symptoms

Moderate:

The child wakes at night, cant run around and play without wheeze or cough

Severe:

The child is too restless to sleep, unwilling to play at all, too breathless to talk or feed if severe (lips going blue)




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