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Professional Communication


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    Percentage of vote: 50.00%

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#1 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 11:49 AM

Just take some care while communicating n u can rock the world with u'r communication.


Communication makes a big difference between ppl

#2 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 11:53 AM

Meeting Tips

Meeting is a characteristic of human civilization, an age-long universal activity in which every Meetinghuman being participates. Whether on a village square in a remote village or in a board-room in an ultra modern office building, you have found, or will soon find, yourself involved in a meeting.

Yet a good number of us who participate in meetings, and even get elected as officers, with the responsibility of organizing and conducting meetings, are ignorant of important meeting terms, meeting procedures and practices. In fact, the fear of the embarrassing problem that may result from the lack of knowledge in correct meeting procedures has literally stopped many from taking on roles or positions on decision-making bodies.

This article is prepared to equip you with the essential knowledge about modern meeting procedures and practices, knowledge which will prepare you for the next meeting you will be taking part in, enable you to make a contribution to various organizations and decision-making bodies, and help you to make a success of your post as a chairman or secretary of your organization.



Meeting Tips

As a member of the civilized human society, where regular meeting is an essential practice, you need to be familiar with meeting practices and procedures, otherwise you may be compelled to remain dumb during an important meeting, or worse still, bungle things if you are voted into a position - like the Chairman's or Secretary's - where the success of the meeting depend on your knowledge of meeting practices and procedures.

What Meeting Is?

Meeting is an act or process of coming together as an assembly for common purpose. It is a gathering of people for discussion or another purpose.

Meetings take place when groups of people gather to discuss, and try to resolve matters which are of a reciprocal concern. Issues are discussed and debated, recommendations are made, directions are given and courses of action are decided.

Types of Meetings

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Public Meeting - This is a meeting in a public place and which the public or a section of the public may be permitted to attend freely or for a fee. An example of a public meeting is a gathering of the people of a town, for discussion on a matter of public concern. The meeting is open to all the notable people of the town, or anybody who has something to contribute to the matter to be discussed.
*
Private Meeting - This is a meeting to which only the members of the body holding the meeting can attend. Meetings held by Associations, Societies, Unions etc. are examples of private meetings. Only the members can attend such meetings.
o
Bodies that meet privately may, however, organize public meetings once in a while for the purpose of educating or informing the members of the public, or a section of the members of the public, who are invited to the meetings.
*
Formal Meeting - This is a meeting planned, arranged or scheduled and held under supervision and control process either of rules and regulations.
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Informal Meeting - This is a meeting arranged and conducted without formality or ceremony. There is usually no agenda and the rules and regulations guiding meeting are not strictly followed, if followed at all.
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Statutory Meeting - This is a meeting that is held because the statute prescribes or authorizes it. It follows the provision and requirements of the law. Under the statutory provision of a meeting, for example, a public limited company must hold a meeting not less than one month and not more than three months after the date on which it is entitled to start business.

Validity of a Meeting

For the business of a meeting to be held valid and binding, certain common law requirements must be fulfilled.

*
Quorum
o
This is the minimum number of persons who must be in attendance before a meeting can be held. The quorum is laid down in the constitution or rules of the organization. If a quorum cannot be declared within 30 minutes after the designated starting time of the meeting, the meeting may be called again for a similar time and place a week later.
o
If, however, no more members attend the reconvened meeting, the Chairman may be allowed by the standing orders to conduct the business with those who have arrived.
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Notice
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This is a form of information, either oral or written, notifying a person that a meeting will be held at a particular time. The notice must be issued under the authority of those empowered by the constitution or regulation of the organization or statute to do so, like the Chairman and Secretary.
*
The Agenda
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An agenda is a programme of the details of the business to be discussed at a meeting in the order in which they are to be taken. Prior to the meeting, an agenda is prepared and circulated to all members. This agenda forms the structure of the meeting. It states where and when the meeting will take place and what matters will be discussed.
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Chairman
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There must be a chairman to preside over the meeting; otherwise the business of the meeting will not be valid. There is always a regulatory provision as to who shall be chairman in the case of a registered body.
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The chairman controls the meeting and all remarks are addressed to the chairman. He is usually addressed as Mr Chairman or Madam Chairman, if the chair is occupied by a woman.
o
The duties of the chairman are:
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To see that the meeting is properly constituted and that a quorum is formed.
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To see that the business of the meeting follows the order of the agenda.
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To restrict discussion to the business of the agenda.
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To maintain order in the meeting.
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To ensure opportunity for expression of opinions.
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To see that motions and amendments are properly put.
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To maintain the ruling on all matters of procedures.
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To decide on point of order submitted to him.
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To do whatever is necessary to pursue the purpose of the meeting e.g. voting on a matter where necessary.
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To give a second or casting vote if regulation allows

The Meeting Structure

For a meeting to effectively achieve its goals, a structure needs to be in place. If a meeting has little or no structure, it will not produce the desired results.

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Calling the meeting
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The secretary, after consultation with or on the instruction of the chairman, sends out ‘notice of meeting’ to those who should attend.
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Opening the Meeting
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The meeting begins after the Chairman, satisfied that the quorum requirement has been met, declares the meeting opened. If a Chairperson has not taken the chair from 15 to 30 minutes after the meeting was due to begin, the assistant chairman might preside over the meeting or another person from among the members present might be elected to preside over the meeting, acting temporarily as the chairman.
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The meeting, depending on the religious belief of the leaders, may commence with an opening prayer. It may commence with the chairman’s speech or in some other way.

Meeting Procedures

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Apologies
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The Chairman states the names of those members who have formally informed him in writing that they are unable to attend the meeting.
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Minutes of the Previous Meeting
o
The Secretary reads the minutes of the previous meeting in a way that it will be heard clearly and understood properly by the people in attendance. If the minutes has been printed and distributed to members before this time, the minutes may not be read by the secretary. The Chairman moves that the minutes of the previous meeting be accepted or adopted.
o
If the members do not agree that the draft minutes are accurate, changes may be suggested. The Chairman may call for a vote on those corrections and then decide if the changes should be made to the minutes.
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Once the Minutes have been adopted (approved formally), the Chairperson signs every page of the minutes and hands them to the meeting secretary for filing.
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Business arising from Minutes of the Previous Meeting
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Reports, pieces of information or other matters of substance that were requested, put forward for consideration or proposed at the previous meeting are debated and a vote is taken on the appropriate action to take.
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Correspondence
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Letters that have been sent to the meeting are tabled and debated, if the chairman wishes. The Chairman presents a piece of correspondence to the meeting with a motion that the meeting receive the correspondence. This is an acknowledgment of the formal receipt of the correspondence by the meeting. It is also a notice that the correspondence may now be discussed and acted upon, if necessary.
o
If the correspondence is considered offensive, the meeting can vote on a motion, not to receive it. Alternatively, the meeting can decide that the correspondence should not be received and lie on the table. A letter or document is said to lie on the table when it is decided at a meeting to take no action upon the business contained in it.
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Reports
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Repots and submissions that have been produced for the meeting or that include information relevant to the business of the meeting are tabled and discussed. A motion that a report be received notifies the meeting that the report exists, as far as the meeting is concerned, and that the report or submission may now be discussed and debated.
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General Business
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Here, items listed under the ‘General Business’ in the agenda are debated. General business items are announced one by one by the Chairman and a discussion or debate follows each one. Motions concerning each item are put forward and to a vote. A motion becomes a resolution if it receives a simple majority, or a majority as defined in the standing orders. In the case of more formal meetings, general business consists of motions that are moved and seconded by people in the meetings. A person who seconds a motion or a seconder is someone who agrees that a motion should be debated.
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Any other Business
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When all items on the agenda have been dealt with, the Chairman may call for matters not listed in ‘General Business.’ Here, the members are able to raise issues they feel are important. These issues may not be listed on the agenda.
o
Issues that are extremely important or complex should not be raised unannounced during this part of the meeting. If an urgent matter must be dealt with by the meeting, the Chairman should be informed before the meeting begins. A revised agenda can then be drawn up in the time that remains before the meeting is due to begin. If the Chairperson feels that any of the issues brought up for discussion are too important, complex or difficult to be effectively dealt with in the meeting he may call for another meeting to discuss the issue, or alternatively, put it on the agenda for the next scheduled meeting.
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Close of Meeting
o
When the Chairman is satisfied that all the issues on the agenda have been put forward and discussed, he advises members of the date and time of the next meeting. The meeting is now officially closed.
o
A meeting started with prayer may also close with prayer.
*
Minutes
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Minutes are a record of the proceedings of a meeting and are kept to preserve a brief, accurate and clear record of the business carried out.
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The Secretary usually records the minutes. After the meeting, he writes up the minutes, in the third person and usually in the past tense.
o
Minutes should be:
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Accurate, so that they present a true record of the proceedings;
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Brief, so as to provide a readable summary of the important matters discussed and the decisions reached in the meeting;
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Clear, so that anybody who reads it can understand the major things discussed and decided upon in the meeting.
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A draft of the minutes is submitted to the Chairman for his approval before the final copy is typed.



What Can You Do As a Participant in a Meeting?

To be an active and effective participant of a meeting, you must:

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Be well prepared. If minutes of the previous meeting have been sent to you by the secretary, read it very well, noting points you would like to put forward for debate or discussion in the next meeting. If you don’t think the minutes are accurate, make note of the changes you would like to be made to it at the next meeting. If an agenda is included with the notice of meeting, study it. Write down points on the issues you would like to move. Make necessary research. Do your home work well before you attend the meeting.
*
Be a good listener in the meeting. Don’t allow the habit of focusing your thoughts on other matters not related to the meeting when the meeting is in progress. Don’t let other things distract your attention from what is going on in the meeting. Pay attention to the debates and the discussion. Make sure you understand what is being said.
*
Be polite. Don’t at any point in the meeting lose your temper. Don’t show anger when you respond to what other people say. When you debate a point, don’t evince bad temper or aggressiveness or rudeness. Don’t indulge in sulking because you feel insulted or offended.
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Make yourself clear when you speak. Beware of ambiguous terms that may only befuddle your listeners. Use simple words and expressions. Think clearly every time you speak.
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Don’t be proud. In a meeting, let humility be your hall mark, even if all the people in the meeting are of lower education or are not as rich as you are. When you speak, don’t deliberately use big, unfamiliar words, or the technical jargons of your profession to impress other participants. Don’t look down on others in the way you speak, respond or act. Be polite to the chairman and other officers. Never insist on having your ways. When you are out-voted, accept the majority decision in humility. Always remember, ‘pride goeth before destruction.’

#3 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 11:57 AM

Communication Tips

Communication is essential for normal relationship, meaningful interaction and successfulcommunication dealings among people of the world. So important is the ability to communicate that the man who is a master over the art of effective communication enjoys a great advantage in the competitive world over the other man who has not learnt to communicate effectively.

Communication as a human activity dates as far back as the time when the first two human beings appeared on earth.

Speech, signs, body gestures and facial expressions have been used as means of communications from the beginning. As the human society progresses up the ladder of modernization, the volume of communicated messages grow in complexity and the means or channels of communication grow in sophistication.

Communication is, today, a very important field of the social sciences. The processes, tools and media of communication are as vast as there are human actions.



What is Communication?

Communication simply refers to the sharing of thoughts, feelings, wishes or information between two or more people, using sounds, signs or symbols. It includes the procedures whereby one mind may affect another.

Communication is a process of information exchange between a source and destination, through a channel or medium. It is the process through which we impact or transmit message from one party to the other.

Forms of Communication

Communication may take two forms: verbal communication and non-verbal communication.

* Verbal Communication - Verbal communication refers to the message or information transmission by words of mouth. Verbal communication could be: face to face, through phone, radio, television, film, computer/Internet.
o Face-to-face verbal communication. - This involves two or more people talking together, face to face.
o Out-of-sight verbal communication - Verbal communication can take place between two or more people who cannot see each other. Two People separated by a wooded piece of land can can talk to each other, though they hidden by woods from each other.
o Phone verbal communication - Two people can talk together on the phone. The invention of mobile and cell phones now makes it possible for most people from all parts of the world to talk with one another.
o Radio,television and film - In this case, an individual, or a group of people, talk for the other to hear only. The hearers can only respond through other means of communication, such as phone and letter.
o Computer and Internet - A spoken message recorded on CD can be listened to on another computer. This makes it possible for a far larger number of people from one part of the world to hear a message recorded by someone at another part of the world than the number of people who can hear the speaker in person. Response can only be through one of the other many means of communications. A user of a computer connected to the Internet can communicate verbally with another person whose computer is connected to the Internet.
* Non-Verbal Communications
Non-verbal communications refer to message or information transmitted and received with no word spoken. It includes writing, signs and symbols, etc.
o Writing - Anything that is put on paper, board or banner, in any form, to be read by other people is written communication. Written communication lacks the advantage verbal communication has. These disadvantages are:
+ It is less personal in nature
+ It often requires more time to write down a particular message than it requires to speak it
+ It requires some level of education to write and understand written messages. A person who has not learnt to read and write cannot, for example, pick up his pen and dash a note to a friend. If he receives a letter, he has to secure the service of someone else to read it for him. A process that not only wastes time but deny him the benefit of privacy.
o A message communicated in writing cannot be immediately changed and so cannot be easily forgotten or overlooked like casual and careless verbal speeches. The advantages of written communication over spoken communications are:
+ It is more useful than spoken communications when information has to do with many people and when the issues to be dealt with are complex and very important.
+ It is useful when the matter at hand has a long-term significance and there is need to maintain consistency
+ It enables easy preservation of communicated messages over a long period of time.
o Signs and symbols - Long before the art of writing was invented, the people of the world learnt to communicate by signs and symbols. Nearly every communities of the world made use of fire and smoke to communicate with other communities, as SOS, signal to take an action or warning of some dangers.
o Even in our days of sophisticated communication tools and media, signs and symbols are still well used. The major way, for example, through which the deaf and dumb can be communicated with, is through signs.
o Facial expressions - winking, frowning, grimacing - and body gestures still remain the commonest method of daily communication. By nodding, one may greet another person or express consent of a statement. When a traffic police raises his hand, a driver stops; when he waves, the driver moves on.
o Drums have been used by people as a means of communication. Before the invention of telephone and radio, drums were widely used to transmit orders on the battlefields, to summon people to meetings, to announce important messages, etc. The talking drum of the Yoruba tribe of Africa, for example, is good at transmitting understandable messages to dancers. It can beat out expressions that can be understood by the hearer.
o Messages can be communicated by whistles, gongs, trumpets and burgles. The British Rifles and the Light Infantry adopted the stringed burgle horn during the American War of Independence. They found the drum too cumbersome when it came to transmitting orders in the forests. They had noted the Swiss and German troops of the Jaeger Battalions carried the horn. Burgle was still used by the Light and Rifle Regiment during the Second World War.
o Road signs, trade marks, traffic lights etc. are symbols, which communicate specific messages.


Components of Communication

* Most communication models have certain common elements. These components are: The message, the sender, the channel, the receiver and noise factor.
* The Message is the thought, idea, feeling, information or wish being shared. It is what the receiver will receive. To be understood, the message must be in the language and code the receiver can understand. For communication to be effective, the message must be clearly constructed, satisfactorily sent and normally received in understandable form.
* The sender is the person who constructs and sends the message. He performs three major functions: formulation, encoding, and transmitting the message. He uses the channel that is most suitable and readily available at the time.
* The channel is the means through which the message is being transmitted. For the message to reach the receiver in an understandable manner, the channel must not be faulty.
* The receiver is the person with whom the message is being shared. To understand the message, he must have the key to the language and coding system used by the sender in the construction of the message.

Barriers to Effective Communication

* Language Barrier - Language is the common means of communicating verbally or in writing. For communication to be effective, it must be in language and terms the receiver recognizes and understands.
* Coding Barrier - ‘Code’ is a system of secret words, letters, symbols, numbers, etc., used instead of ordinary writing. Every profession, for example, has its own meanings for words. For example, when a writer/editor wants a word, or group of words, that have been crossed in error to remain, he puts the symbol ‘stet’ at the margin and put several dots under the word or words. When the typesetter sees the letters ‘stet’ he knows he is being told to retain the crossed-out words. You need to be a medical personnel to understand a prescription written by a doctor because of the ‘medical’ symbols used. For communication to take place between two people, each of them must have the key to the code used.
* Physical Barriers - These are the things which minimize the opportunities that exist for communication to occur, the environmental factors that may inhibit the process of effective communication. These include noisy environment, such as market places, busy streets and stadiums during sporting events; faulty communicating equipment; attention-distracting actions or situations.
* Psychological Barriers - These are the various factors that may affect the state or the readiness of the individual to receive a message, like:
o When the mind is not ready to learn. A person who is suffering from hunger or sickness, or is grieving the loss of a dear one will be less ready to receive a message
When there is a kind of complex or syndrome between the sender and the receiver, such as pride on the part of the sender, the message will be less acceptable to the receiver
When there is a personal prejudice between a sender and a receiver, which may cause one to be unable or unwilling to understand the other and/or appreciate the others view.


How to Communicate Effectively

* Have a clear concept of what you want to say; otherwise you will confuse the receiver of your message when you say it. Muddle-headedness and lack of clear thinking is often the cause of ambiguity and confused message.
* Speak or write within the level of your audience or reader (receiver). Don’t make the mistake of wanting to impress your audience with big, unfamiliar words. Your desire to be praised for your wide vocabulary and large store of heavy, Latinate words will cost you the privilege of making yourself understood.
* Modify the process of communication so that the noise factor can be taken care of.
* Reduce, as much as it is within your ability, activities and other factors that may distract the attention of your message receiver.
* Avoid speaking in a way that will make your hearer or audience feel that you are looking down on him.

#4 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 11:59 AM

Instructional Strategies Tips

Functional education remains the real instrument and strength of positive change for sustainable Instructional Strategieshuman development. Education and training are often recognized as the prerequisites for quality manpower development and wealth creation.

As the realization of this facts dawn more and more on the people of the world, desire for sound education and up-to-date knowledge acquisition increase, necessitating the need for many more people as teachers and instructors who have never participated in a teacher’s training course.

This article will help you to improve your instructional skill, whether as an on-the-job trainer, classroom teacher or out-of-class instructor.


Tip:

Instructing others is not the sole responsibility of professional teachers. Many, all over the world, who have never studied pedagogy, have the responsibility of teaching others placed on them. If you are one of them, you must gain the knowledge of strategies used in instructing others, to make a success of your teaching assignments.

Instructional Strategies

When we talk of ‘instructional strategies’, what we mean, simply, is ‘a plan of organized thoughtful actions that involve sound employment of effective teaching methods and meaningful coordination of available resources to achieve the desired objectives of teaching.’

Choice of teaching methods

An instructor must understand the criteria or factors which constitute the principles underlying the choice of teaching methods.

A teaching method may be good or bad, appropriate or inappropriate, attractive or unattractive, depending on whether the principles are taken into consideration at the planning and presentation stage.

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The nature of the learners. The maturity or developmental level of the learners, the language and communication skills of the learners and the assimilating ability of the learners must be taken into consideration. The teaching methods used by the teacher must be appropriate to the students’ background and the topics being treated.
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The nature of the subject. Mathematics, for example, will require a different teaching method from fine art.
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The nature of the topic under consideration. Can the topic be effortlessly grasped or is it the hard part of a subject that cannot be easily understood like the other parts?
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The ability of the teacher. If the instructor is not able to explain that topic to the learners’ satisfaction, he can resort to Inquiry/ Discovery method, for example.
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The size of the class. The numbers of students in a class can determine to a large extent the teaching method to be used. For example, the Dalton plan of individual work is hardly practicable in a large class.
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The time and duration of the lesson. If the time in which a lesson must be covered is short, then a method must be chosen that will quickly present the lesson to the students, like Lecture Method.



Classification Of Instructional Strategies

*
Teacher-Centered Methods:
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The teacher does most of the work. Learners’ participation in the lesson is few. Lecture, Didactic and story-telling methods are good examples.
*
Student-Centered Methods:
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The learner does most of the work. Teachers’ participation is minimum. Example:Inquiry/Discovery method, Discussion method, Assignment /Problem-solving method, Role-Play method.

Instructional Strategies

*
Didactic (Teaching) Method
o
In all the instructional methods discussed in this article, the instructor is involved in teaching. But there is a certain way of teaching, which, for want of a better name, we call ‘Didactic.’ The teacher explains a topic to the class, answers learners’ questions on the lesson and asks the students questions to test their understanding of the lessons. In addition, he writes the lesson, or a summary of it, on the board for the students/pupils to copy in their notebooks.
o
This method leans heavily on learning of facts by the learner and is used mainly in the primary and secondary schools.
*
Lecture Method
o
The Lecture Method consists of passing verbal information to the students/pupils who listen and write down as much of the lecture as they can. At the end of the lecture, the students ask questions, which the instructor answers. The teacher does most of the talking. He is fully in charge, the master of knowledge!
o
Lecture method is more applicable for students in higher institutions of learning.
o
The major advantage of the method is that a lot of information can be passed on in a relatively short time and it is particularly suited for teaching large classes.
o
The major limitations of this method are: It is teacher-centered. It does not encourage students’ active participation in learning activities. Learners with short attention span may not derive much benefit from the lecture. It causes boredom in a class because students are not actively involved.
* Discussion Method
o This method involves exchange of ideas between the teacher and the learner. The Instructor and the learners talk about the lesson from several points of view. In a Literature class, the teacher may invite discussion from the students on a new literary book that a well-known author has just written. The teacher does not seem to have a particular answer he wishes to present to the students. He only wants to give them the opportunity to express their views and by so doing their literary appreciation skill.
o Discussion is important to learning in all disciplines because it helps students process information rather than simply receive it. The students can be more active in this method than in lecture method. Discussion is an instructional activity that has uses in classes of all sizes and disciplines.
o The advantage of this method is that it creates a forum to solve difficult problems. Another advantage is that both the teacher and the students are both involved in the lesson, unlike in the lecture method. It also contributes to character development, encourage logical thinking, promote habits of disciplined discussion and facilitate creative thinking.
o The disadvantage is, discussion session can result in bitter arguments if not properly monitored or if quick-tempered students are allowed to get out of control. For example, a discussion session ends in violence when a bad-mannered white student uses offensive term to refer to colored people while speaking. The black people in the class and their white sympathizers first of all released a volley of angry epithets against the offender. When a few white students took his sides, blows began to fly.
* Questioning Method
o The teacher asks questions and calls the students one-by-one to provide answers to the questions. This allows the teacher to assess the previous knowledge, level of understanding, misconceptions and learning difficulties of the students/pupils.
o This method allows individual participation of students in the lesson. It also enables the teacher to provide on-the-spot correction.
o The limitation is that the questions have to be well-phrased, otherwise the students may suffer confusion as to what exact answer they are to give. This may lead to bad teacher-student relations. The method sometimes creates anxiety on students who cannot answer questions well.
* Problem Method
o The teacher presents some problems to the class and asks the students to write down the answer. The teacher marks the answers and then provides the answers, or model answers, to the problems. The teacher may call some of the students, singly, to provide the solution on the board. Nearly every subject can be treated at some stage or another in this way. But the method is most suitable for mathematics.
o The main advantage of this problem is that it allows the teacher to evaluate the knowledge gained by the students in the previous lessons on a particular subject. The method also gives room for student participation in the class activities. Also, the method gives the student the opportunity not to forget what he has learned.
o The disadvantage is that a student, in desperation to prove his knowledge, can resort to cheating.
* Assignment Method
o Assignment is the piece of work given to the students to do outside the classroom, especially from home. The purpose is to consolidate what the student/pupil has learnt in the class and prepare their minds for the next lessons.
o This method helps to broaden the intellectual horizons of the students when they seek for more knowledge from publications, the Internet and experts on the subject of the assignments. It encourages diligence.
o The limitation of the method is that it can encourage plagiarism and cheating.
* Laboratory Method
o In this method, the students is directed or motivated by the Instructor to investigate, collect, analyze and interpret data. A problem is usually given by the teacher for students to solve by researching. The method is usually used to translate theory into practice.
o The merit of this method is that it develops the students’ skill of observation, classification, analyzing, recording and interpretation of data.
o The major demerit of the method is that is consumes much more time than the other instructional strategies.
* Inquiry/discovery Method
o This is a problem-solving method and is almost similar to laboratory method. The method requires the ability to engage in creative thinking and seek data in solving human problems
* Project Method
o The project is an organized activity which individual students or groups of students carry out under the guidance of an instructor within a specific period. The method requires ability to plan, research and gather necessary materials.
o The merit of the method is that it helps to advance the student’s research and creative ability. It equips him with the competence, experience and confidence to seek for information and engage in practical investigations create things and solve problems.
o The demerit is that it is time-consuming. It often requires more money spent on it than other instructional methods.
* Group Method
o In this method, the instructor organizes the students into groups to study a problem or discuss a given topic.
o The size of a group depends on the judgement of the instructor. Two to six students in a group is ideal. Smaller groups - two or three - are better for simple tasks and reaching consensus. Larger groups of four or five are better for more complex tasks and generating lots of ideas.
* Role Play Method
o Role play means pretending to be someone else, especially as part of learning a new skill. Role play can be effectively used in training courses and language-learning.
o The Role Playing Process: The teacher should -
+ present a subject he wants dealt with.
+ choose the participants
+ Set the stage by arranging furniture, indicating where 'doors' might be located.
+ Prepare the audience (the other students) by giving them specific questions which they must be prepared to answer at the conclusion of the role play. Examples: (a) Would this work in real life? (B) How would you have handled the situation?
+ Ask questions of the participants and audience.
+ Reenact the role play, if necessary, using a variation of the situation, new participants, feedback provided to improve a skill. . .
* Case Method
o Cases are situations, narratives, select data samplings, or statements that present unresolved and provocative issues, situations, or questions. As a teaching/learning method, cases challenge participants to analyze, critique, make judgments, speculate and express reasoned opinions.
o Formats for Cases
+ “Finished” cases based on facts. This is for analysis only, since the solution is indicated or alternate solutions are suggested.
+ “Unfinished” open-ended cases, where the results are not yet clear (either because the case has not come to a factual conclusion in real life, or because the teacher has eliminated the final facts.) Students must predict, make choices and offer suggestions that will affect the outcome.
+ Fictional cases. This is entirely written by the instructor. It can be open-ended or finished. But the case must be both complex enough to make it look real.
+ Original documents. News articles, reports with data and statistics, summaries, literary passagesetc.

#5 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:14 PM

CREATING, UNDERSTANDING, AND RESPONDING TO COMMUNICATIONS



Communication, as it is used here, refers to any written, spoken, or visual representation involving language (e.g., web chart or symbol). People create communications for personal use and to convey their ideas to others. People also read, view, and listen to the communications of others. Although there is considerable overlap, it is useful to consider communications in terms of three categories: literary communications, informational communications, and mass media.

Literary Communications

Includes: narrative and non-narrative styles; classic, contemporary, and popular works; print and non-print materials.

The study of literature gives students greater self-awareness and a deeper appreciation of the richness and complexity of human experience. Literature has the power to help students:

* cultivate their personal and aesthetic awareness
* gain insight into the human condition
* broaden their experiences through creative and critical thinking
* transcend the barriers of time and place as they explore imaginary worlds
* recognize the timelessness of literary traditions and their relevance to contemporary life
* increase their awareness of the importance of literary forms and the power of language
* expand vocabulary, gain familiarity with correct language usage, and develop a sense of precision and artistry in style and expression

Informational Communications

Includes: the everyday written and oral language of home, school, community, and work (e.g., letters, forms, directions, summaries, debates, interviews, labels, diaries, notices, telephone conversations) as well as more specialized technical information such as reports, manuals, and procedures.

The exchange of information takes place continually in everyday life. Having the ability to convey and respond to information is essential to students' success in school and the workplace, and prepares them for the responsibilities of citizenship. Using language for a variety of informational purposes and audiences helps students:

* communicate effectively and clearly using various technologies
* read and interpret technical directions and instructions
* gather, exchange, and manage information
* solve problems independently and in collaboration with others
* expand their knowledge base
* cultivate analytical and critical thinking

As students progress through the grades, emphasis in the English Language Arts K to 12 curriculum shifts from the study and creation of informational communications associated with daily life to those associated with school, the workplace, career and postsecondary education, and the wider community.

Mass Media

Includes: print, film, and electronic communications directed to a mass audience.

As students use electronic communications and examine the nature of information conveyed to the public in newspapers, magazines, radio, television programs, and other media, they learn to:

* examine and evaluate content and audience
* analyse cultural, racial, and gender roles and stereotyping
* communicate effectively using media
* select information and expand their knowledge base
* think critically about the messages surrounding them
* comprehend the role of mass media in society and their personal lives

#6 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:19 PM

Comprehend and Respond (Strategies and Skills)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will develop repertoires of skills and strategies to use as they anticipate, predict, and confirm meaning while reading, viewing, and listening.

It is expected that students will:

* consciously use and evaluate a wide variety of strategies before, during, and after reading, viewing, and listening to increase their comprehension and recall
* describe and apply appropriate strategies for locating and using information from a variety of print and non-print sources
* use efficient note-making and note-taking strategies
* explain the effects of a variety of literary devices and techniques, including figurative language, symbolism, parody, and irony


SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Through the use of diverse and challenging materials students learn to adapt reading, listening, and viewing strategies to specific purposes. Students anticipate, predict, and confirm meaning as they work with written, oral, and visual materials.

* Instruct students in how to take dash-form and standard-outline-form notes from pieces of non-fiction writing. Explain how to use these notes to summarize the main ideas and use their own language to develop précis. Provide a choice of non-fiction and prose selections to summarize using this strategy.
* With the class, discuss and generate a list of literary terms. Provide students with definitions of these terms and have them develop a chart to be displayed in the class. During a literature study, have students record all the literary elements they can identify as they read. Have students work in small groups to share what they have discovered about the dynamics of these elements in the piece of literature. Ask each group to choose three literary elements and report to the class on their impact on the quality and power of the piece.
* Provide material on a single topic for reading, viewing, and listening. Ask students to work in groups to generate several questions about the material and research the answers. Ask groups to challenge other groups with their questions and then to discuss the strategies they used to locate the information.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
In order to demonstrate their strategies and skills, students need to work with challenging materials and tasks. When an activity is relatively easy, students may not be aware of the strategies they use. It is only when a task poses some challenge that students consciously draw on the skills and strategies they have developed and are able to describe what they did.

* Assess students' knowledge of skills and strategies in a variety of independent and group contexts, looking for evidence that they can:
o describe problems when they have difficulty
o suggest appropriate strategies or approaches
o consider their purpose and the nature of the problems in choosing approaches
o persist, trying different approaches when one is not effective
o objectively analyse what worked and how they can apply what they've learned to new situations
* After students have studied literary terms and elements, check on their knowledge by asking each student, in turn, to offer one piece of information or an example from the reading or writing selections. Continue until no one can think of another example or piece of information. This activity can be done as a literature bee or relay in which students drop out when they cannot contribute a new piece of information.
* Have students keep ongoing lists of skills and strategies they are developing, along with examples of how and when they have used each one. From time to time, they can review the lists and comment on strategies that they:
o frequently use for specific kinds of tasks
o rely on for a wide variety of tasks
o do not find particularly useful
o have difficulty using effectively

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* Coast To Coast
* Discovering Poetry
* Family Issues
* Far and Wide
* Global Matters
* Horizons
* Inside Stories for Senior Students
* Nineteenth Century Short Stories
* Notes on a Prison Wall
* On The Edge
* The Oxford Dictionary of Current English
* The Prentice Hall Reader
* The Prose Reader
* Reflections
* Searchlights
* The Stolen Party
* Stories from Asia
* The Storyteller
* Tracing One Warm Line
* The Way We Word
* What A Writer Needs
* World Literature
* World Literature, Signature Edition
* Worlds in Small
* Your Voice and Mine

#7 Sarkar - The Power

Sarkar - The Power

    LoVeR BoY

  • SHOs Rockers
  • 2,660 posts
  • Studying:Post Graduation
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:25 PM

lolz jus had my Business Communication exam today

#8 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:27 PM

Comprehend and Respond (Comprehension)

PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will demonstrate their understanding of written, oral, and visual communications.

It is expected that students will:

* demonstrate an understanding of the main ideas, events, or themes of a variety of increasingly complex novels, dramas, stories, poetry, other print material, and electronic media
* organize details and information that they have read, heard, or viewed using a variety of written or graphic forms
* synthesize and report on information from more than one source that they have read, heard, or viewed to address a variety of topics and issues
* develop coherent and plausible interpretations of abstract, complex, or specialized materials
* interpret details and subtleties to clarify gaps or ambiguities in written, oral, or visual works
* interpret details in and draw conclusions from the information presented in a variety of graphic formats, including illustrations, maps, charts, and graphs

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Students make inferences about and draw conclusions from what they read, hear, and view by asking questions, checking original sources, and interpreting and analysing the results.

* During a novel study, have students chart the major elements of fiction and discuss the way these elements work together to contribute to the meaning. Students then present their charts to the class and discuss their understanding of the interrelationship of elements. Ask students to identify three key questions that will help them investigate the most important ideas of the novel.
* Guide students in a discussion about ways they might introduce the characters in a literary work to the class (e.g., role play, photos or drawings, a horoscope for the character, a series of letters between characters, a character's family event). After introducing their characters, have students write "what happens next" stories for a character, or place the character in a different work.
* After watching a time-travel video, ask students to use the setting from the novel to write stories that occur in a different time, reinterpreting the impact of the setting on the characters and plot.
* Ask students to locate three sentences from a novel, short story, or TV documentary that reflect or capture its theme.
* Have students explain the theme of a novel, essay, magazine article, or short story in one sentence.
* Provide students with technical or factual information and have them summarize and present it in graphic form. For example, a student could present a set of instructions as a hand-drawn or computer-generated flow chart.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
When students are aware of the outcomes they are responsible for and the criteria by which their work will be assessed, they can make informed choices about the most effective ways to represent their comprehension.

* When students develop mind maps or other representations that summarize novels or other materials they have studied, look for evidence that they are able to:
o focus their work around key themes or aspects of the works
o incorporate relevant and accurate details
o make clear and logical connections among elements
o address all important aspects of the works
o offer some insight or interpretation of subtleties or implicit features
* Assess students' abilities to synthesize information from more than one source by having each student select a topic of personal interest, develop a list of three to five key questions, and locate relevant information from at least three different sources. Ask students to summarize what they learn by responding to each of the questions in note form, including diagrams if needed. Look for evidence that they are able to combine the information, avoiding duplications or contradictions, and make decisions about which points are most important.
* To check on students' comprehension of works studied in class, form small groups and ask each group to prepare a series of three to five questions about a different selection. Have groups exchange questions, then discuss, summarize, and present their answers. Groups may refer back to the selections during their discussions. For each presentation, the group that designed the questions offers feedback and assessment on the extent to which answers are thorough, logical, relevant, and supported by specific references to the selection.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* The Act of Writing
* The Business of English
* Coast To Coast
* Coming of Age
* Develop Your English Skills
* Discoveries in Non-Fiction
* Discovering Poetry
* Essays: Patterns and Perspectives
* Family Issues
* Far and Wide
* How Porcupines Make Love III
* The Little, Brown Handbook
* Living Theater
* Matters of Gender
* On The Edge
* Poetry Alive
* Print Out
* Process and Practice
* The Project Book
* The Prose Reader
* Reflections
* Searchlights
* Speaking for Success
* Stories from Asia
* The Storyteller
* Tracing One Warm Line
* What A Writer Needs
* World Literature, Signature Edition
* The Writer's Workshop
* Your Voice and Mine

#9 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:32 PM

Comprehend and Respond (Engagement and Personal Response)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will identify connections between their own ideas, experiences, and knowledge and a variety of literary and mass media works created by classroom, local, British Columbian, Canadian, and international authors and developers from various cultural communities.

It is expected that students will:

* make connections between the ideas and information presented in literary and mass media works and their own experiences
* demonstrate a willingness to take a tentative stance, tolerate ambiguity, explore multiple perspectives, and consider more than one interpretation
* support their opinions or respond to questions and tasks about the works they have read or viewed
* make connections among the themes and ideas expressed in various materials
* display respect for the diverse languages and cultures of the communities represented in classroom, local, provincial, national, and international literary and mass media works

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
As students explore a wide range of materials, they discover that literature and mass media often address issues of concern to them. Students need opportunities to respond in constructive and creative ways to these concerns.

* Present students with a piece of literature or a case study narrative about a controversial issue of social importance (e.g., ethics, justice, Aboriginal land claims, women's or men's issues, environmental concerns, racial or multicultural issues). Ask students to record their initial viewpoints on the issue and cite several details from the material in support of their positions. Ask students to choose positions other than their initial ones and reread the piece, looking for information supportive of these new viewpoints. Have students discuss this experience in small groups.
* Engage students in a class discussion on censorship. Give students a list of banned materials and ask them to speculate on why they were banned. Ask students to assume the role of parents or guardians and prepare lists of books, videos, and movies that they would not allow their children to read or see.
* Hold a debate on the statement, "Community standards should dictate what is available to patrons of a public library."
* Invite a panel of writers and artists to speak to the class on the concept of artistic freedom.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
When students respond to literature and media, assessment can focus on both their initial interpretations and their considered analyses and responses.

* When students are planning mock police reports, mock trials, role plays, or debates to demonstrate their analyses of a literary text, work with them to develop criteria that focus on their use of textual evidence. For example, to what extent are they able to:
o develop logical positions that are consistent with the text
o identify specific evidence in text to support a position
o be accurate and precise in using evidence from text
o connect evidence from various parts of a text to build compelling arguments
* Work with the students to develop criteria and rating systems they can use to assess their own written, oral, and representational responses. They can represent their progress with symbols to indicate when they have provided evidence of a particular criterion. Examples include:
o making connections to their own lives (chain link)
o offering close analysis and exploration (magnifying glass)
o considering alternative interpretations (arrows pointing in different directions)
o being open-minded about an author's or character's viewpoint (head with a hinged top)
o citing evidence from a text to support an interpretation (finger pointing to a page)
* Develop a class rating scale that can be used for self-, peer, and teacher assessment of response or dialogue journals. See the Response Journal rating scale in Appendix D, Sample 1 for a model. Have students hand in their journals several times for formative assessment prior to evaluation at the end of term.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* The 21st Century Synonyms and Antonyms Finder
* 75 Readings
* Coast To Coast
* Discoveries in Non-Fiction
* Discovering Literature
* Discovering Poetry
* Essays: Patterns and Perspectives
* Ethics
* Family Issues
* Far and Wide
* Global Matters
* Horizons
* Inside Stories for Senior Students
* Myth
* Nineteenth Century Short Stories
* Notes on a Prison Wall
* The Prentice Hall Reader
* Searchlights
* The Stolen Party
* Tracing One Warm Line
* Travel and Tourism
* Voices of the First Nations
* World Literature
* Worlds in Small

#10 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:35 PM

Comprehend and Respond (Critical Analysis)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES

It is expected that students will draw reasoned conclusions from information found in various written, spoken, or visual communications and defend their conclusions rationally.

It is expected that students will:

* analyse the merits of print and electronic communications in relation to given criteria
* analyse communications to identify weak argumentation
* describe ethical issues associated with mass media and electronic communications, including privacy and freedom of information
* analyse the relationship between the medium and the message
* demonstrate an appreciation of how their experiences and their membership in communities influence their interpretations of what they read, view, and hear
* compare and analyse different presentations of the same ideas and issues

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Students link past and present reading and viewing experiences when they search for universal themes. They need opportunities to compare interpretations and evaluations as well as guidance in composing oral and written explanations of their analyses and interpretations.

* Teach logical fallacies such as overgeneralization, red herrings, false dichotomy, ad hominem, and syllogisms. Lead students in a discussion about how viewpoint can influence the presentation and meaning of material.
* Provide students with a collection of editorials, political cartoons, print advertising, letters to the editor, opinion page commentaries, columns from newspapers, and reports from around the world (e.g., American versus Canadian news, the South China Morning Post). Have them work in groups, identifying examples of objectivity, bias, persuasive technique, and false dichotomy. Have each student select one of the examples and rewrite or reproduce it to correct the bias or to reflect a different viewpoint.
* As a class, generate a list of universal themes such as war, disease, politics, or morality. Have students work in groups to select a theme and gather representations of that theme in prose, poetry, fiction, non-fiction, video, art, and music. Have groups present their collections to the class. Ask students to write personal reflections on the style of representation that affected them most emotionally, the style that provided the most information, and the style they found most offensive.
* Invite several students to present the same folk tale. After they have prepared and presented their versions of the tale, have students compare what was similar and different about each presentation. Have them discuss why some elements remained the same while others changed.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Students should have opportunities to show their competence in dealing with familiar materials and formats they have studied in the classroom, as well as with those they identify and analyse independently.

* To check on students' abilities to compare different presentations of the same information, have each group of three students choose a topical issue, identify five to seven key questions about the topic, and list potential sources of information. Each group member chooses a different medium (e.g., TV, newspapers, World Wide Web, magazines) and locates and summarizes two different articles or other information using the questions the group developed. The group makes a chart or other representation that compares the information gathered, listing four to five key points learned about information sources, with specific evidence to support each point. Students share their analyses with the class. Look for evidence that they:
o identified similarities and differences in the presentations
o made connections between the various media and the messages presented
o accounted for differences in the information they located
o considered how the messages were affected by the intended audience and purpose
o hypothesized or drew logical conclusions about the relative credibility and objectivity of different sources
* Work with students to develop criteria to assess assignments in which students analyse media bias. For example, effective work might be characterized by:
o clear focus on the issue of bias
o specific examples of bias
o objective and detailed explanation
o logical analysis of purpose and potential impact
o explicit conclusion(s) supported by examples and explanations

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* 75 Readings
* Coast To Coast
* Coming of Age
* Designs for Reading
* Discovering Literature
* Essays: Patterns and Perspectives
* Family Issues
* Global Matters
* How Porcupines Make Love III
* Living Theater
* Nineteenth Century Short Stories
* On The Edge
* Poetry Alive
* Searchlights
* The Stolen Party
* The Storyteller
* Tracing One Warm Line
* Voices of the First Nations
* World Literature, Signature Edition

Video Icon
Video

* Frankenstein
* The Glitter
* Media Mayhem
* Selling Lies
* Tabloid Frenzy

Laserdisc/Videodisc IconLaserdisc/Videodisc

#11 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:37 PM

Communicate Ideas and Information (Knowledge of Language)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will apply their knowledge of the conventions of language and use appropriate vocabulary to talk about them.

It is expected that students will:

* use a variety of communications technologies, including telecommunications hardware and software
* use appropriate formats and documentation to present information from a variety of sources
* adjust their form, style, tone, and language to suit specific audiences and purposes
* use a variety of computer functions and software to create and edit their presentations
* incorporate electronic research sources into desktop-published work

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Through direct instruction and practice, students strengthen their technical writing skills, expand their vocabularies, and identify errors in their own and others' work.

* Discuss with students the difference between connotation and denotation, and emotionally laden and neutral words. For example, look at the differences between words such as nervous and terrified, thin and skinny, and dead and murdered. Then have students draw charts with columns for words ranging from weakest to neutral to most powerful. Present students with a word or phrase that has a number of synonyms, list the synonyms, and have students place them on their charts. Have students each write two descriptions of a person - one using emotionally laden words and the other using more neutral language. Ask students to edit one another's work to neutralize it or make it emotionally charged. Discuss the process.
* Use direct instruction to teach students about common grammar and usage errors. Provide students with a paragraph to edit that contains common grammar, usage, capitalization, and spelling errors. Then have groups of students each select one of the common errors and present a lesson to the class.
* Have students work as electronic pen pals, sending e-mail messages that contain intentional errors. Have the recipients correct the errors and reply. Discuss the significance of grammatical errors in electronic communications when there are no contextual, tonal, or body language clues to clarify meaning.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Students demonstrate their knowledge about language and communications technologies when they apply it to a variety of communication tasks. They can also demonstrate and reinforce their understanding by making presentations and posing questions to their classmates.

* When students work with connotative and denotative language, provide a few minutes at the end of the activity for them to complete these prompts:
o Something I hadn't thought of before is _____ .
o Two ways I can use what I noticed about emotionally charged language are _____ .
o One situation in which it will always be important to use neutral language is _____ .
* Collaborate with students to generate criteria for assessing their lessons for common grammatical and usage errors. Criteria should focus on the extent to which they apply knowledge of language conventions and describe relevant strategies, tools, and technologies. For example, note the extent to which students:
o clearly identify and describe specific usage issues or problems
o provide illustrative examples
o offer relevant and practical suggestions or strategies
o include appropriate practice or monitoring activities
o respond to questions with relevant, clear information
* Students can check their knowledge about language conventions, communications technologies, and ways of documenting information by answering questions posed by their classmates. For example, each student can pose one question as part of an impromptu classroom quiz on language or communications technology. Have students prepare at least two questions each in case another student asks the same question.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* The 21st Century Dictionary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
* The 21st Century Dictionary of Quotations
* The 21st Century Grammar Handbook
* The 21st Century Guide to Pronunciation
* The 21st Century Synonyms and Antonyms Finder
* The Communications Handbook
* Develop Your English Skills
* Horizons
* Literary Terms
* The Little, Brown Handbook
* The Oxford Dictionary of Current English
* The Oxford Study Dictionary
* Poetry Alive
* Print Out
* Process and Practice
* The Prose Reader
* Reflections
* Roget's Twenty-First Century Thesaurus
* Sentencecraft
* Stories from Asia
* Technically-Write!
* World Literature, Signature Edition
* The Writer's Workshop
* Writing Clear Essays
* Writing for Results

#12 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:48 PM

Communicate Ideas and Information (Composing and Creating)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will employ a variety of effective processes and strategies, including the use of electronic technology, to generate, gather, and organize information and ideas.

It is expected that students will:

* develop focussed inquiry questions with specific purposes and audiences in mind
* use a variety of planning strategies to generate and access ideas
* clarify and focus their topics to suit their purposes and audiences
* locate, access, and select appropriate information from a variety of resources
* synthesize information and ideas that are appropriate to their purpose, media, and audiences
* apply various strategies to generate and shape ideas


SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Students need opportunities to make choices about the processes they use to gather and organize information and the ways they present their work. They learn more about effective strategies for organizing and expressing ideas when they talk together about the processes they use.

* As a class, brainstorm a set of current issues. Have students explore both sides of a chosen personal issue, using several sources and collaborating with their peers. Have students each develop a research plan for their topic, including three critical questions, proposed research strategies, sources of information, proposed audience, and presentation format. Presentations might take the form of debates, role plays, talk shows, mock trials, speeches, poster series, or TV news reports. Ask students to peer edit before presenting. Guide the class in selecting a review panel of three students to assess and evaluate peer presentations. Have students give reviewers summaries of their issues, lists of questions answered by their research, and lists of areas in which they would like feedback (e.g., quality of writing, credibility of information, persuasive arguments, speaking ability, supportive visuals, organization, clarity).
* Introduce students to the five-paragraph method of expository organization, including the use of thesis statement, transition, and conclusion. Have students read models of persuasive essays and point out the features that make them effective (e.g., rhetorical devices). Discuss with the class logical fallacies and bias. Ask students each to identify a topic and write a persuasive essay, applying what they have learned. When they have completed their essays, ask them to discuss the processes they used and what they learned.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Individual or group conferences, learning logs, project notes and records, and peer analyses can help to provide evidence of student achievement.

* Collaborate with students to develop criteria for their work on issue inquiries. Criteria might focus on their abilities to:
o define issues
o use critical questions to guide planning
o analyse purpose and audience; identify implications
o articulate their own knowledge and opinions; identify implications
o select appropriate search strategies
o record relevant and detailed information in usable forms
o summarize both sides of issues objectively
o consider audience, purpose, and topic in choosing presentation formats
* When students research and present information, ask them to review and assess their planning and research records. For example, they might rate each of the following components as useful, effective, satisfactory, or not helpful:
o inquiry question(s)
o statement of purpose
o analysis of audience
o decisions about format
o research strategies and sources
o method of organizing and synthesizing information
o strategies for monitoring progress and gathering feedback
* When students develop plans for presentations using a variety of media, assess and respond to their plans in terms of:
o feasibility
o audience appeal
o potential effectiveness
o consistency among the parts of the plan
o thoroughness and detail
o logical connection between message and medium

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* 3-D English
* The Art of Teaching Writing
* Breaking Free
* The Business of English
* The Communications Handbook
* Discoveries in Non-Fiction
* Essays: Thought and Style
* Family Issues
* Far and Wide
* Inside Stories for Senior Students
* Matters of Gender
* Notes on a Prison Wall
* Poetry Alive
* The Prentice Hall Reader
* The Project Book
* The Prose Reader
* The Research Essay
* Searchlights
* The Stolen Party
* The Storyteller
* Tracing One Warm Line
* Voices of the First Nations
* The Writer's Workshop
* Writing Clear Essays
* Writing for Results

Video IconVideo

* At the Gate
* The Glitter
* Media Mayhem
* Selling Lies

#13 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:50 PM

Communicate Ideas and Information (Improving Communications)

PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will enhance the precision, clarity, and artistry of their communications by using processes that professional authors and presenters use to appraise and improve their communications.

It is expected that students will:

* assess their own and others' work for sentence clarity, precision of language use, and variety and artistry of expression
* use appropriate criteria to critique and appraise their own and others' ideas, use of language, and presentation forms, taking into consideration the purposes of the communications
* manipulate the conventions of language for stylistic effect
* adapt their oral presentations and discussions to best suit audiences and styles
* demonstrate a willingness to accept and provide constructive criticism and feedback to improve the clarity, meaning, and style of their communications

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
To appraise and improve their communications, students need to observe the forms and conventions used by others, as well as consider the models available at home, at school, and in the community.

* Assign groups of students each a quotation from the work of particular authors. Have them examine their quotations for the stylistic techniques used by the authors (descriptive phrases, rhetorical devices, tone, humour, other techniques). Ask groups to report to the class what they found out about the authors' styles. Then have them use the same strategies to examine samples of one another's work.
* Teach students the organizational framework of a compare-and-contrast essay. Have students read models of essays that examine both sides of an issue and discuss how the essays are effective. Ask students to each generate a list of topics, then write a compare-and-contrast essay. Have students who wrote on the same topic gather in groups and provide feedback on strengths and weaknesses of each person's essay.
* Suggest that students review daily and community papers and identify standard sections and their purposes. Then have them discuss the distinctions between news stories, feature stories, and editorials. Ask students to investigate school events over a period of several weeks and write stories about them. After students develop a checklist for technical editing, have them submit each article for editing by at least two other students. Elect an editorial board to review all submissions and select material for publication. Invite a professional editor to review the selections and provide feedback to authors and editors.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Students can demonstrate their skills in improving written, oral, visual, and electronic communications by providing peer feedback, using checklists, responding to questions about their work, and including drafts and planning materials in the assignments they submit. Individual and group editing conferences offer insights into students' achievement of these outcomes.

* Prompt students to use a variety of ways to assess their work. They can use checklists or rating scales, offer analyses in terms of class or individually developed criteria, use symbol systems (e.g., putting sketches of stars or light bulbs beside passages that show insight, quills beside passages that are particularly well written), or include comments such as:
o Two things I'd like you to notice about my work (or performance) are: _____ .
o I'd like to know what you think about the way I _____ .
o You could help me by offering advice or suggestions about _____ .
o Provide opportunities for students to review their oral presentation skills and identify one or two specific goals for improvement. They can develop action plans that describe:
o what steps they will take to reach their goals
o what resources (including classmates and teacher) are available to support them
o how they will monitor their progress
* Have students develop and use checklists for spelling, mechanics, usage, syntax, and format conventions. They should include copies of the checklists with all assignments. Students can also refer to the checklists to provide peer feedback.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* The Art of Teaching Writing
* Horizons
* The Little, Brown Handbook
* The Prose Reader
* Speaking for Success
* Technically-Write!
* The Writer's Workshop
* Writing for Results

#14 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:52 PM

Communicate Ideas and Information (Presenting and Valuing)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will demonstrate their understanding of and abilities to use a variety of forms and styles of communication that are relevant to specific purposes and audiences.

It is expected that students will:

* demonstrate pride and satisfaction in using language to create and express ideas and personal viewpoints
* create a variety of communications using different tones and voices to evoke emotions, influence, persuade, and entertain
* create a variety of academic, technical, and personal communications, including multi-genre presentations, articles, formal reports, advertising and persuasive materials, résumés, and research papers

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Students structure their work so that it achieves particular purposes and is appropriate for particular audiences. Opportunities to evaluate their own work and get opinions from others about the extent to which their writing actually suits their intended audiences and purposes can help them further refine their communications.

* Have students design and develop multimedia advertising campaigns directed toward their peers that include audio, visual, and print materials to promote favourite short stories or novels. Invite a panel of peers to provide responses as to the effectiveness of the campaigns.
* Invite students to prepare live or video presentations for the class illustrating how to prepare or deliver a speech for a particular audience.
* Have students view a variety of election campaign speeches. Engage them in a discussion by prompting them with questions such as: How are the speeches alike or different? Which were successful and which unsuccessful? What were some of the techniques the politicians used? Run an election campaign in the class to have students elect a class representative. Have students write campaign speeches to persuade their classmates to vote for them.
* Identify with students a number of simple problems that families, classes, or schools might have (e.g., the garbage pickup was missed, a bank account was overdrawn, an assignment was late, a library book was missing). Ask students to prepare technical reports addressed to people in authority explaining how the errors occurred and how the problems will be rectified. Invite a review panel to comment on the acceptability of the explanation and solution in each report.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Performance rating scales can be effectively used to assess student presentations. A number of samples are included in Appendix D. Also see the reference set Evaluating Writing Across Curriculum.

* When students write persuasive essays, criteria such as the following can provide the basis for a performance rating scale:
o thesis clearly states position
o argument is logically developed through examples, explanations, and specific, relevant details
o sustains focus on thesis
o takes a tentative stance; considers alternative views
o uses rhetorical devices
o reaches a logical conclusion, supported by the argument that has been developed
o clearly written; follows the conventions of expository writing
* When students prepare material in specific written, oral, or other formats, collaborate with them to develop guidelines and criteria for scoring and self-assessment by posing questions such as the following:
o Who is your audience? What do you know about them? What features will appeal to them? What special considerations do you need to make for them?
o What is your purpose? What features are essential if you are to accomplish your purpose?
o What are the key features and conventions that characterize the medium and format you have chosen?
* From time to time, have students review and reflect on the written, oral, and visual presentations they have created. (This may be part of a portfolio review or self-assessment.) Give each student three stickers. Have students place the stickers beside three ideas, excerpts, or works of which they are particularly proud. Provide opportunities for them to share their choices with partners or small groups and receive responses to their choices from the teacher through written or oral comments.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* 3-D English
* The Act of Writing
* The Art of Teaching Writing
* The Business of English
* The Canadian Writer's Market
* Coming of Age
* The Communications Handbook
* Discovering Poetry
* Family Issues
* Global Matters
* Horizons
* Literature Circles
* The Little, Brown Handbook
* Macbeth
* NTC Vocabulary Builders
* Poetry Alive
* The Prentice Hall Reader
* Print Out
* Process and Practice
* The Project Book
* The Prose Reader
* Richard III
* Speechcraft
* The Stolen Party
* Technically-Write!
* Twelfth Night
* World Literature
* World Literature, Signature Edition
* Worlds in Small
* The Writer's Workshop
* Writing Clear Essays
* Writing for Results
* Your Voice and Mine

#15 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:54 PM

Self and Society (Personal Awareness)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES

It is expected that students will use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, and experiences to prepare for their roles in the world.

It is expected that students will:

* demonstrate confidence in their abilities to communicate effectively in a variety of formal and informal contexts
* assess their language skills, interests, and attitudes in the light of personal and career plans
* set communication goals and develop and monitor action plans
* appraise the language requirements of specific careers or areas of postsecondary study
* demonstrate a commitment to increasing their proficiency in all aspects of communication

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Students prepare for their roles in the world by considering their strengths and limitations as communicators. Students use a range of means such as reflective journals, learning logs, and individual research projects to broaden their communications repertoires and assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of their skills.

* Discuss with students the importance of milestones in their lives and how they are celebrated. Have students design staircases in which each step represents a milestone in their personal development. Ask them to elaborate in writing on their key developmental steps.
* Brainstorm with students a list of their interests outside of school. Ask each student to choose one interest for further research. This research may comprise reading, conducting interviews, writing letters, or exploring sources such as information technology and telecommunications networks. What career opportunities are suggested by their research? Ask students to present their information to the class using at least two forms of communication.
* Ask each student to research the vocabulary specific to two careers (e.g., auto mechanics, graphic arts). Assign students to each write a conversation between two workers, one from each field, using the appropriate vocabulary.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Students show their skills and commitment to self-assessment and improvement in the ways they approach regular language activities, as well as through specific reflective tasks such as learning logs or goal setting.

* Conferences or discussions in which students have opportunities to consider variations in the way they prefer to communicate can help them reflect on their current skills and develop goals for improvement. Questions might include:
o Think about different situations and purposes for communicating. What ways are most comfortable and effective for you when you are asked to:
+ share your ideas about a book or story with other students
+ show your understanding about the same book to your teacher
+ present research information to your class
+ present information about yourself to a prospective employer
+ persuade students in the class to agree with an opinion or plan
+ persuade an employer to hire you
+ persuade your teacher to change a deadline or the length of an assignment
o If you could use only one way of communicating to your teachers - talking, writing, video, audio, e-mail, sketching - what would it be? Why?
o If you could avoid one form of communication at school or work, what would it be? Why?
o If you could improve one area of communication, which one would you choose? Why?
* Provide regular opportunities for students to review and analyse their progress in developing language and communication skills. For example, consider setting aside a few minutes at the end of each class for students to record examples of specific skills or knowledge they have acquired or improved.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* 3-D English
* 75 Readings
* The Act of Writing
* The Business of English
* Coast To Coast
* Coming of Age
* Discoveries in Non-Fiction
* Discovering Literature
* Ethics
* Expanding Response Journals In All Subject Areas
* Family Issues
* Global Matters
* Horizons
* Inside Stories for Senior Students
* Living Theater
* Matters of Gender
* Nineteenth Century Short Stories
* Notes on a Prison Wall
* On The Edge
* Poetry Alive
* The Prentice Hall Reader
* Process and Practice
* The Stolen Party
* Stories from Asia
* The Storyteller
* Tracing One Warm Line
* Travel and Tourism
* Voices of the First Nations
* The Whole Language Catalogue
* World Literature
* World Literature, Signature Edition
* Worlds in Small
* The Writer's Workshop
* Your Voice and Mine

#16 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:56 PM

Self and Society (Working Together)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
I
t is expected that students will use language to interact and collaborate with others to explore ideas and to accomplish goals.

It is expected that students will:

* evaluate and adjust their own roles to align with the group's purpose
* apply a variety of strategies including diplomacy and compromise to solve problems and achieve group goals
* use a variety of resources and technologies when working with others
* assess the value, limitations, and ethical issues associated with collaborative work
* develop and use criteria to evaluate group processes and their own roles in and contributions to group processes

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
By working with others to solve problems, develop products, or debate issues, students learn the skills needed to collaborate, achieve consensus, share the results of joint efforts, and appreciate and respect others.

* Encourage students to examine their participation in various group activities. Prompt their self-assessment with key questions such as: What ideas did you offer? Did you support or encourage others? How did you handle conflict? What skills would you like to add to your repertoire for group work? What behaviours, both verbal and non-verbal, positively affected group interactions? Have students work together to develop guidelines for working effectively in groups and accomplishing tasks.
* Ask each student to prepare a chart that identifies tasks best accomplished in groups and those best done individually, including the advantages and disadvantages of each method. When students compare their charts with partners, would they make any changes to their original ideas?
* Engage the class in a discussion about the various ways people use technology to work together. Ask them to identify how forms of technology are suited to specific purposes. Have students develop a matrix that relates purposes to technologies (e.g., video conferencing is suitable for distance education but not for co-authoring a story). Invite pairs of students to each select a technology, work with it to complete a simple task, then develop a guide for using that technology in collaborative work (e.g., using telephone, fax, e-mail, Internet forums). Compile these guides into a class manual of effective uses of technology in working together.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Monitoring the development of group skills requires a balance of self- and peer assessment with teacher observation. Assessment should consider both the processes students use and the results of their work together. The reference set Evaluating Group Communication Skills Across Curriculum may be helpful to assess these outcomes.

* Outline the learning outcomes for this organizer and collaborate with students to develop a set of guidelines or criteria for individual participation and skills in group work. These can become the basis for a checklist or rating scale for self-, peer, and teacher assessment. Criteria at this level might include:
o uses tentative and inclusive language
o helps to develop and sustain group interactions
o offers clarification, elaboration, explanation, feedback, suggestions, hypotheses, questions, and synthesis as needed
* Provide each student with a copy of the chart from the reference set Evaluating Group Communication Skills Across Curriculum. Ask students to highlight or underline the words and phrases that describe their skills, then meet with partners or in small groups to discuss one another's analyses. After their discussion, have students record:
o something that surprised them about their own analyses or those of their partners
o two phrases or excerpts from the chart that describe areas of strength they can build on
o one phrase or excerpt that describes a goal they want to work toward
* Before each group activity, ask students to record individual goals or intentions, then collaborate with other group members to specify one goal or intention that the group will emphasize. At the end of the activity, provide time for them to assess the extent to which they realized their goals and intentions.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES
Print IconPrint Materials

* The 21st Century Dictionary of Quotations
* 3-D English
* The Act of Writing
* Beyond Chalk & Talk
* Breaking Free
* The Business of English
* Coast To Coast
* Coming of Age
* Discoveries in Non-Fiction
* Ethics
* Far and Wide
* "Just Talking About Ourselves": Voices of Our Youth
* Literature Circles
* Matters of Gender
* Poetry Alive
* The Research Essay
* Speaking for Success
* The Stolen Party
* Stories from Asia
* The Storyteller
* Travel and Tourism
* Voices of the First Nations
* The Whole Language Catalogue
* Your Voice and Mine

#17 TheLeader

TheLeader
  • College:University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Studying:Working
  • Country:United States
  • Gender:Male

Posted 23 April 2006 - 04:58 PM

Self and Society (Building Community)


PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected that students will use language to help establish and maintain relationships within the school and community, to collaborate to get things done, and to value and support others.

It is expected that students will:

* interact purposefully, confidentially, and ethically in a variety of situations
* communicate to clarify their ideas, understanding, and opinions
* value and respect the diversity of language and culture in Canadian society
* demonstrate an openness to the divergent ideas and opinions expressed by classmates and others
* demonstrate an appreciation for the role of language in the organization and celebration of special events

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Language helps create a sense of community. As they examine, share, and celebrate their own and others' uniqueness, students learn to appreciate and respect their similarities and differences.

* Provide students with examples of multicultural literature written by immigrants or Aboriginal authors. Discuss with them the unique and common experiences of people whose lives are described in the literature. Each student chooses one person's experience and explores it in more depth by writing a letter from the perspective of a person from that culture, role-playing the individual, writing a sequel to the person's story, or conducting a videotaped interview with an Aboriginal person or a recent immigrant to Canada.
* Challenge students to investigate their heritage by interviewing their parents or grandparents and reading about their cultural roots. Students may use the information to write stories or essays that trace some aspect of their family histories, write about the immigration experience of their first Canadian ancestor, or compile family albums or family trees. Provide opportunities for students to display their finished products and answer questions from their peers about the work.
* Have students create a student newspaper based on the information from their interviews with parents or grandparents.
* Ask each student to choose an area of interest (e.g., music, leisure activities, career interests) and find a partner with a contrasting view. Ask each pair to join another pair. Students in pair A discuss the topic, explaining and defending their respective positions and inquiring about each other's reasoning. Pair B observes and provides feedback on strategies used for dealing effectively with divergent views.

SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
Students demonstrate their openness, respect, and competence in the way they speak and respond to their classmates in day-to-day activities and discussions, as well as when they focus on the learning outcomes in this area.

* When students research and report on cultural heritage and Aboriginal and immigrant experiences, ensure that they are aware of the learning outcomes they are expected to demonstrate. Criteria such as the following can be applied to a wide variety of representations, including drama, videotapes or audiotapes, multimedia presentations, essays, stories, poetry, or visual displays:
o clear central theme reflects a positive stance toward the culture involved
o includes relevant detail to develop and support central theme
o draws on appropriate sources and resources
o information is balanced and credible
o reaches conclusions (or offers a strong overall impression) that avoid stereotyping
* From time to time, pose questions such as the following to prompt discussion and reflection:
o Is it important to be part of school or community celebrations? Why or why not?
o What kinds of school or community celebrations are important to you? Which ones can you imagine yourself telling your children and grandchildren about? What makes them stand out for you?
* After students have discussed divergent ideas and opinions with partners, and observed and offered feedback to other pairs, have each group of four present a brief report to the class about the strategies they used and observed. The teacher may wish to provide an outline such as the following:
o Language that helped to keep the discussion calm _______ .
o Strategies that helped to make a position clear _______ .
o Strategies that people used to keep the focus on why they held their own view (rather than attacking another view)_______ .
o Ways people showed that they respected each other's right to hold a different opinion or view _______ .
Students can also write brief self-assessments.

RECOMMENDED LEARNING RESOURCES

Print Materials

* The Business of English
* Coast To Coast
* The Cremation of Sam McGee
* Discovering Poetry
* Encountering Cultures
* Essays: Patterns and Perspectives
* Ethics
* Horizons
* "Just Talking About Ourselves": Voices of Our Youth
* Matters of Gender
* Myth
* Nineteenth Century Short Stories
* On The Edge
* Poetry Alive
* Print Out
* The Research Essay
* The Stolen Party
* Technically-Write!
* Tracing One Warm Line
* Travel and Tourism
* Voices of the First Nations
* World Literature, Signature Edition
* Worlds in Small

Video

* 4 Sight
* At the Gate
* View from the Typewriter

#18 tatisamrat

tatisamrat

    I m here to gather info

  • SHO Lovers
  • 71 posts
  • Country:India
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Posted 01 November 2006 - 07:28 PM

Communication Tips

Communication is essential for normal relationship, meaningful interaction and successfulcommunication dealings among people of the world. So important is the ability to communicate that the man who is a master over the art of effective communication enjoys a great advantage in the competitive world over the other man who has not learnt to communicate effectively.

Communication as a human activity dates as far back as the time when the first two human beings appeared on earth.

Speech, signs, body gestures and facial expressions have been used as means of communications from the beginning. As the human society progresses up the ladder of modernization, the volume of communicated messages grow in complexity and the means or channels of communication grow in sophistication.

Communication is, today, a very important field of the social sciences. The processes, tools and media of communication are as vast as there are human actions.

What is Communication?

Communication simply refers to the sharing of thoughts, feelings, wishes or information between two or more people, using sounds, signs or symbols. It includes the procedures whereby one mind may affect another.

Communication is a process of information exchange between a source and destination, through a channel or medium. It is the process through which we impact or transmit message from one party to the other.

Forms of Communication

Communication may take two forms: verbal communication and non-verbal communication.

* Verbal Communication - Verbal communication refers to the message or information transmission by words of mouth. Verbal communication could be: face to face, through phone, radio, television, film, computer/Internet.
o Face-to-face verbal communication. - This involves two or more people talking together, face to face.
o Out-of-sight verbal communication - Verbal communication can take place between two or more people who cannot see each other. Two People separated by a wooded piece of land can can talk to each other, though they hidden by woods from each other.
o Phone verbal communication - Two people can talk together on the phone. The invention of mobile and cell phones now makes it possible for most people from all parts of the world to talk with one another.
o Radio,television and film - In this case, an individual, or a group of people, talk for the other to hear only. The hearers can only respond through other means of communication, such as phone and letter.
o Computer and Internet - A spoken message recorded on CD can be listened to on another computer. This makes it possible for a far larger number of people from one part of the world to hear a message recorded by someone at another part of the world than the number of people who can hear the speaker in person. Response can only be through one of the other many means of communications. A user of a computer connected to the Internet can communicate verbally with another person whose computer is connected to the Internet.
* Non-Verbal Communications
Non-verbal communications refer to message or information transmitted and received with no word spoken. It includes writing, signs and symbols, etc.
o Writing - Anything that is put on paper, board or banner, in any form, to be read by other people is written communication. Written communication lacks the advantage verbal communication has. These disadvantages are:
+ It is less personal in nature
+ It often requires more time to write down a particular message than it requires to speak it
+ It requires some level of education to write and understand written messages. A person who has not learnt to read and write cannot, for example, pick up his pen and dash a note to a friend. If he receives a letter, he has to secure the service of someone else to read it for him. A process that not only wastes time but deny him the benefit of privacy.
o A message communicated in writing cannot be immediately changed and so cannot be easily forgotten or overlooked like casual and careless verbal speeches. The advantages of written communication over spoken communications are:
+ It is more useful than spoken communications when information has to do with many people and when the issues to be dealt with are complex and very important.
+ It is useful when the matter at hand has a long-term significance and there is need to maintain consistency
+ It enables easy preservation of communicated messages over a long period of time.
o Signs and symbols - Long before the art of writing was invented, the people of the world learnt to communicate by signs and symbols. Nearly every communities of the world made use of fire and smoke to communicate with other communities, as SOS, signal to take an action or warning of some dangers.
o Even in our days of sophisticated communication tools and media, signs and symbols are still well used. The major way, for example, through which the deaf and dumb can be communicated with, is through signs.
o Facial expressions - winking, frowning, grimacing - and body gestures still remain the commonest method of daily communication. By nodding, one may greet another person or express consent of a statement. When a traffic police raises his hand, a driver stops; when he waves, the driver moves on.
o Drums have been used by people as a means of communication. Before the invention of telephone and radio, drums were widely used to transmit orders on the battlefields, to summon people to meetings, to announce important messages, etc. The talking drum of the Yoruba tribe of Africa, for example, is good at transmitting understandable messages to dancers. It can beat out expressions that can be understood by the hearer.
o Messages can be communicated by whistles, gongs, trumpets and burgles. The British Rifles and the Light Infantry adopted the stringed burgle horn during the American War of Independence. They found the drum too cumbersome when it came to transmitting orders in the forests. They had noted the Swiss and German troops of the Jaeger Battalions carried the horn. Burgle was still used by the Light and Rifle Regiment during the Second World War.
o Road signs, trade marks, traffic lights etc. are symbols, which communicate specific messages.
Components of Communication

* Most communication models have certain common elements. These components are: The message, the sender, the channel, the receiver and noise factor.
* The Message is the thought, idea, feeling, information or wish being shared. It is what the receiver will receive. To be understood, the message must be in the language and code the receiver can understand. For communication to be effective, the message must be clearly constructed, satisfactorily sent and normally received in understandable form.
* The sender is the person who constructs and sends the message. He performs three major functions: formulation, encoding, and transmitting the message. He uses the channel that is most suitable and readily available at the time.
* The channel is the means through which the message is being transmitted. For the message to reach the receiver in an understandable manner, the channel must not be faulty.
* The receiver is the person with whom the message is being shared. To understand the message, he must have the key to the language and coding system used by the sender in the construction of the message.

Barriers to Effective Communication

* Language Barrier - Language is the common means of communicating verbally or in writing. For communication to be effective, it must be in language and terms the receiver recognizes and understands.
* Coding Barrier - ‘Code’ is a system of secret words, letters, symbols, numbers, etc., used instead of ordinary writing. Every profession, for example, has its own meanings for words. For example, when a writer/editor wants a word, or group of words, that have been crossed in error to remain, he puts the symbol ‘stet’ at the margin and put several dots under the word or words. When the typesetter sees the letters ‘stet’ he knows he is being told to retain the crossed-out words. You need to be a medical personnel to understand a prescription written by a doctor because of the ‘medical’ symbols used. For communication to take place between two people, each of them must have the key to the code used.
* Physical Barriers - These are the things which minimize the opportunities that exist for communication to occur, the environmental factors that may inhibit the process of effective communication. These include noisy environment, such as market places, busy streets and stadiums during sporting events; faulty communicating equipment; attention-distracting actions or situations.
* Psychological Barriers - These are the various factors that may affect the state or the readiness of the individual to receive a message, like:
o When the mind is not ready to learn. A person who is suffering from hunger or sickness, or is grieving the loss of a dear one will be less ready to receive a message
When there is a kind of complex or syndrome between the sender and the receiver, such as pride on the part of the sender, the message will be less acceptable to the receiver
When there is a personal prejudice between a sender and a receiver, which may cause one to be unable or unwilling to understand the other and/or appreciate the others view.
How to Communicate Effectively

* Have a clear concept of what you want to say; otherwise you will confuse the receiver of your message when you say it. Muddle-headedness and lack of clear thinking is often the cause of ambiguity and confused message.
* Speak or write within the level of your audience or reader (receiver). Don’t make the mistake of wanting to impress your audience with big, unfamiliar words. Your desire to be praised for your wide vocabulary and large store of heavy, Latinate words will cost you the privilege of making yourself understood.
* Modify the process of communication so that the noise factor can be taken care of.
* Reduce, as much as it is within your ability, activities and other factors that may distract the attention of your message receiver.
* Avoid speaking in a way that will make your hearer or audience feel that you are looking down on him.





its really good. great information was provided by you. thank you.

#19 Desamuduru

Desamuduru

    Rockstars

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Posted 29 November 2006 - 12:43 PM

NICE DUDE

#20 Mr. [email protected]$omE

Mr. [email protected]$omE

    *#THE SCIENTIST#*

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Posted 15 January 2007 - 01:44 PM

good post
very useful




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