Jump to content


Photo

SEXUAL MEDICINE


  • Please log in to reply
79 replies to this topic

#21 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:12 AM

Condoms & STDs
The Facts About Condoms & STDs
For years you’ve heard some say, “Use a condom every time you have Abuse Word.” The implication is
that condoms take the risk out of Abuse Wordual activity, but research shows that’s just not the case.
According to reliable studies, approximately 14 percent of couples using condoms for pregnancy
prevention get pregnant during the first year of use. In addition, even with 100 percent use
(which is uncommon), condoms at best only reduce the risk (not eliminate it) of STDs (Abuse Wordually
transmitted diseases).
The truth is, even if you use a condom every single time you have Abuse Word, you’re still at risk for both
pregnancy and a significant number of STDs. How serious is your risk? Keep reading.
The STD Epidemic
America is in the midst of an STD epidemic. Each year, more than 15 million Americans become
infected with an STD. A quarter of these infections occur in teens, and two-thirds occur in
people under 25 years of age.
The numbers have risen at alarming rates. Up through the 1960s, there were only two STDs of
major concern—syphilis and gonorrhea—both which could easily be cured with penicillin. The
times have changed, however, and today there are more than 25 STDs, many for which there is
no cure.1
STDs aren’t just humiliating or painful. They can cause infertility, cervical cancer—even death.
So how effective are condoms at protecting you from infection? It depends on the disease.
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)
There is virtually no evidence that condoms reduce the risk of HPV infection at all, though they
may slightly decrease the number of people who go on to get warts or cervical cancer. Despite
the fact that most people know little about it, HPV is the single most common STD in America. In
one recent study half of the Abuse Wordually active 18- to 22-year-old women were infected with HPV.2
HPV infections cause many health problems. In addition to genital warts, HPV causes nearly all
cervical cancer. In 1999, more women died of cervical cancer (4,800) than AIDS (4,100).3, 4
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
If used 100 percent of the time (which is uncommon), condoms only reduce the risk of
chlamydia and gonorrhea infection by about half. Chlamydia infections are extremely common,
particularly in young women. Approximately 700,000 new chlamydia and 360,000 new
gonorrhea cases are reported yearly in the U.S.5 Because the majority of chlamydia cases cause
no symptoms, even more people are infected but don’t know about it. Left untreated, chlamydia
and gonorrhea infections can damage a woman’s fallopian tubes, causing ectopic pregnancies
and infertility.6 About a third of in vitro fertilization is necessary due to infertility caused by an
STD (usually chlamydia or gonorrhea).
Genital Herpes
Based on the limited studies, it appears condoms only reduce the risk of herpes by half at best.
Genital herpes infects nearly a quarter of Americans 12 and older and almost half of all African
Americans. Because there is no cure, once you’re infected with genital herpes, you have it for life. The
ulcers associated with the infection can recur over and over. You can give it to another person even
when you have no symptoms. People with herpes are also more at risk for becoming infected with HIV
from an HIV-positive Abuse Wordual partner.7,8
HIV/AIDS
If used 100 percent of the time, condoms reduce the risk of HIV transmission by 85 percent. It’s
important to note that the rate is significantly lower when condoms are used inconsistently
(which is common). Since the epidemic began, HIV/AIDS has killed nearly half a million
Americans (and the number is growing).
Do Most People Use Condoms Consistently?
In a nutshell, “no.” Less than half of 15- to 19-year-old males report using a condom
consistently over the past year. And as they get older and more Abuse Wordually experienced, fewer
males use condoms consistently.9,10 Even under extreme circumstances, such as a study of
monogamous couples in which one partner was HIV+ and one was HIV- only about half used
condoms consistently for a significant period of time.
How Common Is Correct Usage?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), condoms need to be used
both consistently AND correctly.11 Consistent condom use is uncommon, and consistent AND
correct use is even more rare. That’s not surprising, given that correct use requires a meticulous
6-step procedure that begins after erection occurs.
Do Condoms Ever Slip or Break?
Yes. According to research, even if used consistently and correctly, condoms slip off or break
from 1.5 percent to 3.5 percent of the time.12,13,14
Condom Conclusion
STDs are a real and present danger. Due to the risk, many have turned to condoms for
protection under the assumption that condoms make Abuse Word safe.
Research shows that condoms reduce risk for some (not all) STDs, but they don’t eliminate the risk.
That’s a critical distinction. Condoms do not make Abuse Word safe enough for individuals who truly wish to
avoid getting STDs and suffering possible long-term effects.
If you’ve already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong mutually faithful relationship (as in marriage),
talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and your partner tested for STDs. Abstinence from
Abuse Wordual activity—including oral Abuse Word—or lifetime faithfulness to one uninfected partner is the only certain
way to avoid being infected.

#22 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:13 AM

STDs: The Facts
The Facts About STDs
The Epidemic
The United States is experiencing a major epidemic of Abuse Wordually transmitted Disease (STD). Over 60
million Americans are currently infected with an STD and 15 million new cases of Abuse Wordually transmitted
infection occur each year.1 One quarter of these new STD infections occur in people between 15 and
19, and two-thirds occur in those under the age of 25.2
The Cause
What is driving this epidemic? A combination of factors including the initiation of Abuse Wordual activity
occurring at younger ages; a delay in the age of first marriage; and high divorce rates. These changing
social norms have increased the number of lifetime Abuse Wordual partners for many Americans. An increased
number of lifetime Abuse Wordual partners is a very important risk factor for STDs.3 The problem is
compounded because many individuals infected with the most common STDs—chlamydia, genital
herpes and human papillomavirus—do not experience noticeable symptoms and do not know that they
are contagious.
The Impact
Unfortunately, STDs are not “equal opportunity” diseases. Adolescents are at greater risk than adults.
The CDC gives several explanations for this increased risk including: adolescents are more likely to
have multiple Abuse Wordual partners; they may select partners at higher risk; and, they may be more
susceptible to certain STDs because of their immature anatomy.4
Additionally, STDs disproportionately impact women. Women are known to be more susceptible to
infection with certain STDs, particularly, chlamydia and gonorrhea.5 Women with STDs are also more
likely to experience significant complications from their infection, including the development of pelvic
inflammatory disease, infertility and cervical cancer.
The Fallacy
Though effective antibiotic treatments for bacterial STDs exist, antibiotic resistance is increasing. Even
treatment with antibiotics cannot guarantee that later complications will be avoided. Antiviral
medications do exist, but are not uniformly effective and even in the best scenarios, not curative.
Research to produce vaccines that prevent viral STDs is ongoing, but to date hepatitis B is the only
STD with an effective and widely available vaccine. New medical advances to prevent and/or treat
viral STDs appear to be years away, and in fact, many never occur.
The Confusion
Condoms continue to be widely promoted as effective in preventing all STDs and unwanted pregnancy,
but the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. Condoms can and do fail. For some STDs (those
spread by contact with infected skin) condoms are likely to fail if they do not completely cover all
infected areas. For STDs spread by contact with body fluids, as well as for pregnancy, the most
significant reasons for condom failure are incorrect/inconsistent use and breakage/slippage. And
while the risk of condom breakage/slippage for a single act of Abuse Wordual intercourse may be quite small
(2-3%) in most studies), the cumulative breakage/slippage risks when condoms are used as a longterm
prevention strategy are significant.
Condoms are not particularly effective when used to prevent pregnancy. In fact, condoms have failure
rates of approximately 14 percent during the first year of typical use.6 And these failure rates are even
higher in younger users.
In addition, the scientific evidence shows that condoms may not prevent the transmission of most
STDs. Consistent condom use (100%) reduces HIV risk by about 85%. For gonorrhea, chlamydia,
herpes and syphilis, consistent use reduces risk by 50% at most. Almost no risk reduction is provided
for HPV infection;7,8 however, some data suggest that HPV-related conditions occur less commonly in
condom users.9 Even in the best of situations, condoms cannot eliminate the risk of STD
transmission.
The Solution
Delaying Abuse Wordual activity until marriage with an uninfected spouse is the only way for teens and single
adults to avoid the risk of an STD infection or a nonmarital pregnancy. Adolescents and single adults
can successfully postpone Abuse Wordual activity (become or remain abstinent) if properly instructed and
encouraged. According to the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health parents can have an
important impact on the Abuse Wordual behavior of adolescent children. Parents who are “connected” with
their children are significantly more likely to have adolescents who delay Abuse Wordual initiation. Similarly,
adolescents whose parents disapprove of teen Abuse Wordual activity and contraception are significantly more
likely to delay having Abuse Word.10

#23 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:14 AM

STDs: The Facts
The Facts About STDs
The Epidemic
The United States is experiencing a major epidemic of Abuse Wordually transmitted Disease (STD). Over 60
million Americans are currently infected with an STD and 15 million new cases of Abuse Wordually transmitted
infection occur each year.1 One quarter of these new STD infections occur in people between 15 and
19, and two-thirds occur in those under the age of 25.2
The Cause
What is driving this epidemic? A combination of factors including the initiation of Abuse Wordual activity
occurring at younger ages; a delay in the age of first marriage; and high divorce rates. These changing
social norms have increased the number of lifetime Abuse Wordual partners for many Americans. An increased
number of lifetime Abuse Wordual partners is a very important risk factor for STDs.3 The problem is
compounded because many individuals infected with the most common STDs—chlamydia, genital
herpes and human papillomavirus—do not experience noticeable symptoms and do not know that they
are contagious.
The Impact
Unfortunately, STDs are not “equal opportunity” diseases. Adolescents are at greater risk than adults.
The CDC gives several explanations for this increased risk including: adolescents are more likely to
have multiple Abuse Wordual partners; they may select partners at higher risk; and, they may be more
susceptible to certain STDs because of their immature anatomy.4
Additionally, STDs disproportionately impact women. Women are known to be more susceptible to
infection with certain STDs, particularly, chlamydia and gonorrhea.5 Women with STDs are also more
likely to experience significant complications from their infection, including the development of pelvic
inflammatory disease, infertility and cervical cancer.
The Fallacy
Though effective antibiotic treatments for bacterial STDs exist, antibiotic resistance is increasing. Even
treatment with antibiotics cannot guarantee that later complications will be avoided. Antiviral
medications do exist, but are not uniformly effective and even in the best scenarios, not curative.
Research to produce vaccines that prevent viral STDs is ongoing, but to date hepatitis B is the only
STD with an effective and widely available vaccine. New medical advances to prevent and/or treat
viral STDs appear to be years away, and in fact, many never occur.
The Confusion
Condoms continue to be widely promoted as effective in preventing all STDs and unwanted pregnancy,
but the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. Condoms can and do fail. For some STDs (those
spread by contact with infected skin) condoms are likely to fail if they do not completely cover all
infected areas. For STDs spread by contact with body fluids, as well as for pregnancy, the most
significant reasons for condom failure are incorrect/inconsistent use and breakage/slippage. And
while the risk of condom breakage/slippage for a single act of Abuse Wordual intercourse may be quite small
(2-3%) in most studies), the cumulative breakage/slippage risks when condoms are used as a longterm
prevention strategy are significant.
Condoms are not particularly effective when used to prevent pregnancy. In fact, condoms have failure
rates of approximately 14 percent during the first year of typical use.6 And these failure rates are even
higher in younger users.
In addition, the scientific evidence shows that condoms may not prevent the transmission of most
STDs. Consistent condom use (100%) reduces HIV risk by about 85%. For gonorrhea, chlamydia,
herpes and syphilis, consistent use reduces risk by 50% at most. Almost no risk reduction is provided
for HPV infection;7,8 however, some data suggest that HPV-related conditions occur less commonly in
condom users.9 Even in the best of situations, condoms cannot eliminate the risk of STD
transmission.
The Solution
Delaying Abuse Wordual activity until marriage with an uninfected spouse is the only way for teens and single
adults to avoid the risk of an STD infection or a nonmarital pregnancy. Adolescents and single adults
can successfully postpone Abuse Wordual activity (become or remain abstinent) if properly instructed and
encouraged. According to the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health parents can have an
important impact on the Abuse Wordual behavior of adolescent children. Parents who are “connected” with
their children are significantly more likely to have adolescents who delay Abuse Wordual initiation. Similarly,
adolescents whose parents disapprove of teen Abuse Wordual activity and contraception are significantly more
likely to delay having Abuse Word.10

#24 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:15 AM

Genital Herpes
The Facts About Genital Herpes
What is the herpes simplex virus (HSV)?
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes (mouth, genital areas,
etc.) of humans. Most genital herpes infections are caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).
How many people have genital herpes?
Genital herpes is the most common Abuse Wordually transmitted viral infection in the United States, with an
estimated 45 million people infected.1 This is over one in five Americans age 12 or over.2 More than
45 percent of black Americans age 12 or over have been infected with HSV-2.3 In addition, one million
people acquire genital herpes infection each year in the United States.4
How does someone get genital herpes?
HSV-2 is a Abuse Wordually transmitted infection. Although HSV-2 typically causes genital infections, it can also
cause oral infections that can then be spread by non-Abuse Wordual activities like kissing. Similarly, although
HSV-1 usually causes oral herpes infections, it can be transmitted to the genitals via oral Abuse Word, thereby
becoming a Abuse Wordually transmitted infection.
Unlike many other Abuse Wordually transmitted infections that are spread by exposure to infected body fluids,
HSV is commonly spread by skin-to-skin contact. When a person who has HSV present on his/her body
comes in contact with someone who is not infected, the virus (and the infection) may spread. In
addition to HSV infection in the oral and genital areas, HSV infection may also occur on the abdomen,
thighs, hands and other areas.
The greatest risk factor for genital herpes infection is the total number of lifetime Abuse Wordual partners a
person has had. Women seem to be at greater risk for infection than do men.5
What are the symptoms?
The earliest symptoms of an initial genital herpes infection may include fever, headache and muscle
aches that begin six to seven days after exposure. About eight days after exposure, lesions appear in
the area of exposure. These lesions usually begin as small blisters, which break and become ulcers.
The ulcers are painful and often burn or itch. Other genital symptoms include burning with urination,
vaginal or urethral discharge and tender swollen lymph nodes in the groin area. Symptoms of the
initial infection typically resolve within two to three weeks.6 Recurrent outbreaks of herpes skin lesions
are common, but are usually not preceded by the fever, headache and muscle aches that generally
precede the initial outbreak.
How does someone find out s(he) has genital herpes?
When someone visits a physician with symptoms of genital herpes (painful ulcers in the genital area),
viral cultures or other tests to establish the presence of the virus can confirm the diagnosis.
Unfortunately, as many as 90 percent of people with genital herpes do not know they are infected.7
Tests for detecting herpes infection in patients without symptoms are available, but not widely used. In
individuals (or groups of individuals) known to be at high risk of infection, it may be appropriate to test
people who don’t have symptoms of genital herpes to reduce the chance of unknowingly infecting a
Abuse Wordual partner.
How is genital herpes treated?
There is no cure for genital herpes. Treatment with anti-viral medications like Acyclovir reduces the
duration and intensity of symptoms. Long-term treatment with these medications can decrease the
frequency of recurrences and asymptomatic viral shedding.8
What are some of the long-term effects of genital herpes?
Once a person is infected with HSV-2 (s)he is probably infected for life and can transmit the infection
to others even at times when (s)he is not experiencing symptoms. Approximately 90 percent of
individuals with an initial symptomatic HSV-2 infection will experience at least one recurrence of
symptoms within the 12 months following the initial episode, and 38 percent have at least six
recurrences in the first year.9 Recurrence rates decrease over time, but recurrences can occur for the
remainder of the person’s life.10
An additional consequence of genital herpes infection is that infected individuals are at increased risk
of contracting HIV, the virus that leads to AIDS.11 They may also be more likely to spread HIV to
others.12
Finally, mothers with genital herpes can transmit the infection to their newborn infants. This risk is
greatest with primary (first-time) infections. With recurrent infections, the risk is less than 1 percent.13
Infected newborns are quite sick and often die. Genital herpes infection of the mother also increases
the risk of both spontaneous abortion and premature birth.14
How can I avoid getting genital herpes?
Based on the limited studies, it appears condoms only reduce the risk of acquiring genital herpes
through Abuse Wordual activity by half at best if they are used consistently and correctly. However, since the
virus is transmitted by skin-to-skin contact, condoms are likely to be less effective in reducing the
transmission of herpes than they are for infections transmitted by body fluids.16 Condoms do not cover
all the skin in the genital area, and Abuse Word with an infected person can result in an infection, even when
condoms are used.
If you have already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong mutually faithful relationship (as in
marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and your partner tested for STDs.
Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity—including oral Abuse Word—or lifetime faithfulness to one uninfected partner is
the only certain way to avoid being infected Abuse Wordually.

#25 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:15 AM

Gonorrhea
The Facts About Gonorrhea
What is gonorrhea?
Neisseria gonorrhea is a bacterium that causes genital infections and other infections in humans.
How many people have gonorrhea?
About 650,000 Americans become infected with gonorrhea each year.1 It is the second most common
reportable bacterial Abuse Wordually transmitted infection in America.
How does someone get gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is primarily spread by Abuse Wordual contact, including Abuse Wordual intercourse, oral Abuse Word and anal Abuse Word. A
newborn baby can also become infected during the birth process if his/her mother is infected.
What are the symptoms?
The symptoms of gonorrhea infection vary depending on the part of the body that is infected and
usually begin within a week of exposure. A genital infection typically causes discharge (increased fluid)
from the vagina (or urethra) and may cause pain with urination. In women, abnormal vaginal bleeding
("spotting") is common while in men, pain and swelling around the testicles (epididymitis) may occur.2
When a woman has vaginal intercourse with an infected man, the infection usually begins in the
woman’s cervix. The infection may remain in the area of the cervix for some time, or may spread to the
uterus (endometritis) and fallopian tubes (salpingitis). When this spread occurs, the condition is called
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID may cause few symptoms and go unrecognized, or PID may be
a severe, life-threatening infection. Common symptoms of PID include pelvic and abdominal pain,
fever and abnormal vaginal bleeding. When abdominal tenderness is present, PID may be confused
with other severe abdominal conditions, i.e., acute appendicitis or ectopic (tubal) pregnancy.
Oral and rectal infections also occur and produce irritation, pain, discharge and other symptoms in the
affected area. Some individuals with oral or rectal infections may not experience symptoms and may
not be aware of their infection.
How does someone find out s(he) has gonorrhea?
Usually, people with signs or symptoms of a gonorrheal infection will seek medical attention and be
evaluated by a clinician. Samples of body fluids will be examined and tested to determine the
presence of gonorrhea organisms.
Infection can also occur without symptoms. In fact, between 25-80 percent of infected women and a
smaller percentage of men have no symptoms.3,4
How is gonorrhea treated?
Uncomplicated gonorrhea is treated with oral or injectable antibiotics. After treatment, infected
individuals should be re-examined and tested to ensure that they have been cured. If a female
develops PID, hospitalization and treatment with intravenous (IV) antibiotics may be required.5
Treatment of infected pregnant women prevents transmission of infection to the newborn.
Additionally, newborn infants routinely receive antibiotic eye medication to prevent eye infections
caused by gonorrhea.6
What are some of the long-term effects of gonorrhea infection?
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most common complication of gonorrhea in women, occurring
in 10-20 percent of infected females.7 Among US women who seek medical assistance to become
pregnant, one in four are infertile because of scarring caused by PID.8
Disseminated gonorrheal infection (gonorrhea infection that spreads throughout the body), occurs in
about 1 percent of patients with untreated gonorrhea. The most severe complications of disseminated
infection are endocarditis, which can destroy the valves of the heart, and meningitis.9
Gonorrhea causes problems for pregnant women. Women who are infected are at increased risk of
spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. Gonorrhea can also infect
the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus.
How can I avoid getting gonorrhea?
Condoms, when used consistently and correctly, reduce the risk of acquiring gonorrhea. Abuse Wordually
active individuals, especially those at high risk for contracting gonorrhea, should be screened and
treated for gonorrhea each time they change Abuse Wordual partners to prevent long-term complications and
avoid spreading the infection to others.
If you have already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong mutually faithful relationship (as in
marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and your partner tested for STDs.
Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity--including oral Abuse Word--or lifetime faithfulness to one uninfected partner is
the only certain way to avoid being infected Abuse Wordually.

#26 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:16 AM

Hepatitis B
The Facts About Hepatitis B
What is hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is a common viral bloodborne infection that can also be Abuse Wordually transmitted.
How many people have hepatitis B?
The majority of unvaccinated infants born to mothers with hepatitis B develop chronic infections.
About one of every 20 people exposed to hepatitis B as an adolescent or adult develops chronic
infections.1 It is estimated that 1.25 million Americans are chronically infected; 20-30 percent of these
acquired the infection in childhood.2 Following the advent of routine childhood hepatitis B vaccination,
the number of new infections reported yearly has declined by 2/3, from an estimated 260,000 in the
1980s to about 80,000 in 2001.2
How does someone get hepatitis B?
About half of all hepatitis B infections are transmitted through Abuse Wordual activity. People who share
needles when shooting drugs are at high risk for infection as well. Transmission can also occur if
needles used for tattooing or body piercing are not properly sterilized and are then reused. Most
newborns will become infected during the birth process if the mother is infected and the baby is not
vaccinated. Hepatitis B is not transmitted through the type of casual contact that occurs in the
workplace.
What are the symptoms?
Nearly 30 percent of infected people have no signs or symptoms of infection. Due to liver damage, an
infected person may experience jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), severe fatigue, loss of
appetite, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Rash, joint pain and fever may also occur.
What are some of the long-term effects of a hepatitis B infection?
A significant number of people with hepatitis B have lifelong infections that can cause liver failure,
cancer and death.
How does someone find out s(he) has hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B can be diagnosed through a variety of simple blood tests.
How is hepatitis B treated?
There are numerous drug therapies available that can be used to treat hepatitis B, but they tend to be
expensive, have to be used for extended periods of time and can cause serious side effects, including
depression. Even when taken diligently, the drugs are not always effective.
Am I safe if I consistently use a condom?
Studies are lacking, but given the way hepatitis B is transmitted, condoms would not be expected to
eliminate your risk of infection, though they might reduce it some.
How can I avoid getting hepatitis B?
Prevention is always best. A good vaccination is now routinely administered to babies in the U.S. and
available to people of all ages. To prevent exposure, don’t shoot drugs. Never get a tattoo or body
piercing from a place that does not have a current inspection certificate from your local health
department. If you haven’t had Abuse Word and don't shoot drugs, your chances of getting hepatitis B are
considerably reduced. If you’ve already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong mutually faithful
relationship (as in marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and your partner
tested for STDs. Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity or lifetime faithfulness to one uninfected partner is
the only certain way to avoid being infected Abuse Wordually.

#27 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:17 AM

Hepatitis C
The Facts About Hepatitis C
What is hepatitis C?
Hepatitis C is an extremely contagious bloodborne disease that can also be Abuse Wordually transmitted.
How many people have hepatitis C?
More than four out of every five people with new hepatitis C infections develop chronic infections. It is
estimated that four million Americans have evidence of having had hepatitis C at some point during
their life.1 In the past, a large percentage of people were infected when they received blood products
during medical procedures. Improved blood donor screening has led to a dramatic drop in the annual
number of new infections (from about 240,000 in the 1980s to 25,000 in 2001).1 Injection drug use
now accounts for nearly half of all new infections.
How does someone get hepatitis C?
Hepatitis C is primarily transmitted from people sharing needles when shooting drugs. Transmission
can also occur if needles used for tattooing or body piercing are not properly sterilized and are then
reused. Before 1992, when widespread screening of blood products became the norm, transfusions
were a common mode of transmission. In the early 1960s, as many as one in every five transfused
blood products was contaminated with Hepatitis C; now the risk is about one in 100,000.2 One of
every 30 infants born to mothers with hepatitis C is infected during the birth process.3 Hepatitis C can
also be Abuse Wordually transmitted. Multiple Abuse Word partners increase the risk for infection. Hepatitis C is not
transmitted through the type of casual contact that occurs in a workplace.
What are the symptoms?
About three out of four infected people show no signs or symptoms of infection. Due to liver damage,
an infected person may experience jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), severe fatigue, loss of
appetite, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.
What are some of the long-term effects of a hepatitis C infection?
A significant number of people with hepatitis C have lifelong infections that can cause liver failure,
cancer and death.
How does someone find out s(he) has hepatitis C?
Hepatitis C can be diagnosed through a variety of simple blood tests.
How is hepatitis C treated?
There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C, although vaccination against hepatitis A and B is
recommended to prevent any further damage to the liver. For the same reason, consumption of
alcohol is not recommended for people infected with hepatitis C. There are a couple of drug therapies
available, but they tend to be expensive, have to be used for extended periods of time and can cause
serious side effects, including depression. Even when taken diligently, the drugs are not always effective.
Am I safe if I consistently use a condom?
Studies are lacking, but given the way hepatitis C is transmitted, condoms would not be expected to
eliminate your risk of infection, though they might reduce it some.
How can I avoid getting hepatitis C?
Don’t shoot drugs. Never get a tattoo or body piercing from a place that does not have a current
inspection certificate from your local health department. If you haven’t had Abuse Word and don't shoot drugs,
your chances of getting hepatitis C are considerably reduced. If you’ve already been Abuse Wordually active
outside a lifelong mutually faithful relationship (as in marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about
getting you and your partner tested for STDs. Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity or lifetime faithfulness to
one uninfected partner is the only certain way to avoid being infected Abuse Wordually.

#28 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:18 AM

HIV/AIDS
The Facts About HIV and AIDS
What are HIV and AIDS?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that invades the immune system and destroys it over
time. The destruction of the immune system reduces a person’s ability to fight off infections and
cancer. The majority of people infected with HIV eventually develop AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome), which is often fatal.
How many people have HIV and AIDS?
The CDC estimates that there are currently 800,000 to 900,000 Americans living with HIV infection.1
About a fourth of these people don’t know they are infected.2 Approximately 320,000 Americans
currently have AIDS, and almost half a million Americans have died from AIDS since the beginning of
the epidemic.1
How does someone get HIV?
Exposure to infected blood or other body fluids is required for HIV transmission to occur; the highest
HIV concentrations are in blood, semen and vaginal secretions. Intravenous drug users and men who
have Abuse Word with men are at the highest risk for HIV, followed by those who have Abuse Word with multiple
partners. People who have untreated Abuse Wordually transmitted diseases (particularly those that cause
sores—such as syphilis) have an increased risk of acquiring HIV infection. HIV is not transmitted
through the type of casual contact that occurs in the workplace.
What are the symptoms?
Infected individuals may have short-lived, flu-like symptoms (fatigue, fever, aches). Others have no
symptoms with the initial infection or for many years thereafter. AIDS typically appears about 10 years
after the initial HIV infection (although new therapies may further delay the development of AIDS).
What are some of the long-term effects of an HIV infection?
HIV usually develops into AIDS, which is often painful and deadly. More than a dozen “opportunistic”
infections (ie, infections that are fought off by normal immune systems) and several types of cancer
are common in AIDS patients. These infections include tuberculosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, certain
types of fungal and yeast infections, and persistent and unusual intestinal infections. Common
cancers include lymphomas and Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Due to the severe nature of HIV, people with HIV infections should seriously consider abstaining from
future Abuse Wordual activity, as it poses a considerable risk to any uninfected partner. Because HIV can be
passed from a mother to child, it is important for every pregnant woman and her doctor to know the
woman’s HIV status. Prompt treatment of the mother and newborn significantly decreases the infant’s
risk of HIV infection.
How does someone find out s(he) has HIV?
Blood tests are available to diagnose HIV infections. When a person is first infected with HIV, a few
months (1-6) may need to go by before the blood tests become positive.
How is HIV treated?
A complex regimen of medicine can prolong the lives of those infected with HIV for many years. These
drugs are expensive, often have considerable side effects and great care must be taken to take them
consistently. Though a great deal of energy and financial resources have been devoted to finding an
effective vaccine, these efforts have yet to prove successful.
Am I safe if I consistently use a condom or switch to oral Abuse Word?
Using condoms exactly as directed every time you have Abuse Word can reduce your risk of getting HIV by
about 85 percent.3,4 However, this still leaves a significant chance of getting a deadly disease. It is
also possible for HIV to be passed during oral Abuse Word.
How can I avoid getting HIV?
Don't shoot drugs. If you haven't had Abuse Word and don't shoot drugs, your chances of getting HIV/AIDS are
remote. If you’ve already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong mutually faithful relationship (as in
marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and your partner tested for STDs.
Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity—including oral Abuse Word—or lifetime faithfulness to one uninfected partner is
the only certain way to avoid being infected Abuse Wordually.

#29 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:19 AM

Human Papilloma Virus
The Facts About Human Papilloma Virus
What is HPV?
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes (tissues that line
the mouth, cervix, vagina, urethra and anus) of humans. Of the more than 100 strains of HPV,
approximately 30 cause genital infections.1
How many people have HPV?
Five to six million Americans become infected with genital HPV every year.2 Twenty million Americans
are currently infected with the virus, and another 80 million have been infected at some time in the
past. This means that 75 percent of Abuse Wordually active Americans are or have previously been infected.3
How does someone get HPV?
HPV is primarily spread by skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or by contact with body fluids
contaminated with the virus. This means that most cases of genital HPV are acquired through Abuse Wordual
intercourse. Transmission of HPV via oral Abuse Word4, genital touching5 and via inanimate objects6 may also
be possible, but the risk of infection from these activities has not been well documented.
What are the symptoms?
Most patients with HPV infection have no symptoms. Approximately 1 percent of all individuals who
have been infected with HPV and 7 percent of those with current HPV infection have genital warts.7
How does someone find out s(he) has HPV?
Most people who are infected with HPV have no visible signs of infection. Since testing for HPV
infection is not performed routinely, most infected women discover their infection when abnormalities
are detected on a Pap smear. Most asymptomatic men do not know they are infected.
How is HPV treated?
HPV infection is not curable, although most HPV infections resolve spontaneously.8 Individuals with
genital warts typically undergo treatment with topical medications applied to the wart in the
physician’s office or at home. Such medications may cause the warts to decrease in size or disappear.
Even if warts do resolve, infection may remain, and can still be passed on to a future Abuse Wordual partner. In
addition, warts frequently recur in the months following treatment.
What are some of the long-term effects of HPV infection?
Annually, 2.5 million women experience an abnormal Pap smear in the United States, with a majority
of these due to HPV infection.9 Untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (the “pre-cancer” that
typically causes abnormal Pap smears) can develop into cervical cancer. In fact, cervical cancer occurs
in approximately 13,000 women every year in the United States, and kills almost 5,000 American
women yearly.10 HPV is the primary cause of over 99 percent of cervical cancers.11,12
HPV is also associated with a number of other cancers, including oral, vaginal, vulvar, penile and anal
cancer.13-19
How can I avoid getting HPV?
Since HPV is spread by skin-to-skin contact, and condoms do not cover the entire genital area,
condoms are likely to be less effective in reducing the risk of HPV transmission than with other
Abuse Wordually transmitted infections.20 A few studies have shown that condoms may partially reduce the
transmission in men, but their effectiveness has not been demonstrated for women.21 Since HPV is so
common among Abuse Wordually active individuals, those who become Abuse Wordually active outside of marriage are
likely to be infected by the virus even if they use condoms. Women should receive regular Pap smears
for early detection of cervical abnormalities like cervical cancer.
If you have already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong mutually faithful relationship (as in
marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and your partner tested for STDs.
Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity--including oral Abuse Word--or lifetime faithfulness to one uninfected partner is
the only certain way to avoid being infected Abuse Wordually.

#30 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:20 AM

Syphilis
The Facts About Syphilis
What is syphilis?
Treponema pallidum is a centuries-old, highly infectious bacterium that causes syphilis.
How many people have syphilis?
The numbers of people reported with syphilis in the U.S. decreased dramatically between the mid-
1940s and 2000 (falling from almost 100,000 yearly cases of primary and secondary syphilis to less
than 6,000);1 numbers of reported cases have risen slightly since then. People in correctional
institutions, people living in southern states, men and African Americans are disproportionately (most)
affected.1, 2
How does someone get syphilis?
Syphilis transmission usually occurs during vaginal, anal or oral Abuse Word when syphilitic sores or patches
come into contact with slightly abraded skin or mucous membranes. Women who catch syphilis within
a few years before they get pregnant and who fail to get treated often (70 percent) pass syphilis on to
their infants. Forty percent of women who acquire syphilis during pregnancy and who go without
treatment will lose the child.
What are the symptoms?
Syphilis has been called “The Great Imitator” because so many of the signs and symptoms resemble
other diseases. The primary stage of syphilis is usually marked by the appearance of a single sore
(chancre), although multiple sores may develop. The chancre is usually firm, round and painless and
appears about three weeks after exposure at the spot where the syphilis bacteria entered the body.
Left untreated, the chancre heals in 3-6 weeks, but the infection may progress to the secondary stage
of syphilis. The secondary stage starts when one or more areas of the skin break into an itch-less rash.
Additional symptoms of secondary syphilis may include fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat,
patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches and fatigue. Tertiary symptoms include
incoordination, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness and severe confusion.
What are some of the long-term effects of a syphilis infection?
Left untreated, secondary syphilis may develop into the tertiary stage resulting in damage to internal
organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints. The damage can
be serious enough to cause death.
How does someone find out s(he) has syphilis?
Primary and secondary syphilis are generally diagnosed with a blood test. The diagnosis of tertiary
syphilis usually requires a test on cerebrospinal fluid (ie, fluid that normally surrounds the brain and
spinal cord).
How is syphilis treated?
There are no home remedies or over-the-counter treatments for syphilis; however, a single dose of an
antibiotic (usually penicillin) can cure a person who has been infected for less than a year. Larger
doses are needed to cure someone who has had it for more than a year. While antibiotics are
extremely effective at killing the syphilis bacterium, they will not repair or reverse the damage already
caused by the disease.
Am I safe if I consistently use a condom or switch to oral Abuse Word?
Not really. Even if you use a condom exactly as directed 100 percent of the time when you have Abuse Word,
you only reduce your chance of getting syphilis from an infected partner by about 30 to 50 percent.3,
4, 5 Syphilis is also easy to transmit through oral Abuse Word. In fact, oral Abuse Word appears to have played a
significant role in syphilis transmission in a number of recent outbreaks.6, 7, 8
How can I avoid getting syphilis?
Because most infected individuals are unaware that they have syphilis, having a Abuse Wordual partner who
has no symptoms offers no guarantee. If you’ve already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong
mutually faithful relationship (as in marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and
your partner tested for STDs. Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity—including oral Abuse Word—or lifetime
faithfulness to one uninfected partner is the only certain way to avoid being infected.

#31 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:20 AM

Trichomonas
The Facts About Trichomonas
What is trichomonas?
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan (a single-celled organism that is bigger and more complex than a
bacterium) that infects the genital tracts of both women and men.
How many people have trichomonas?
Trichomonas is one of the most common Abuse Wordually transmitted infections (STIs). In fact, 5-10 percent of
American women are probably infected.1 Five million new trichomonas infections occur each year in
the United States,2 while approximately 200 million people every year are infected with trichomonas
worldwide.3
How does someone get trichomonas?
Trichomonas is almost always a Abuse Wordually transmitted infection.
What are the symptoms?
The majority (50-80 percent) of women and some men infected with trichomonas do not know that
they are infected.4 In women, trichomonas causes vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) and cervicitis
(inflammation of the cervix). Symptoms of trichomonas vaginitis/ cervicitis frequently include vaginal
discharge, abnormal vaginal bleeding (typically after intercourse) due to cervical irritation, swelling and
irritation of the genitals, itching of the vulva and abdominal pain. In men, the urethra (tube carrying
fluid from the bladder out the penis) is the most common location of infection. Symptoms of urethritis
(infection of the urethra) include discharge from the penis and burning with urination.
How does someone find out s(he) has trichomonas?
Patients with symptoms are usually diagnosed when the clinician finds characteristic physical findings
and identifies the trichomonas organism in genital fluids (vaginal or urethral discharge) or urine.
Routine testing for trichomonas infection is not normally done in patients without symptoms, so
infected individuals who don’t have symptoms are unlikely to be tested. Unfortunately, these
asymptomatic individuals may transmit the infection to their Abuse Wordual partners without being aware of
the risk.
How is trichomonas treated?
Most trichomonas infections are treated with metronidazole, a drug that is taken by mouth. The most
common side effect of metronidazole is a gastrointestinal reaction some patients have after taking
metronidazole and then consuming alcoholic beverages.
What are some of the long-term effects of trichomonas infection?
Trichomonas infection in pregnant women is associated with premature rupture of membranes (early
breakage of the fluid sac surrounding a developing baby) and preterm labor.5 Finally, when a person
has a trichomonas infection and then has Abuse Word with an HIV-infected person, his/her risks of contracting
HIV may be increased.6 (HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.)
How can I avoid getting trichomonas?
Since trichomonas is transmitted by exchange of body fluids, condoms are likely to reduce the risk of
transmission in Abuse Wordually active individuals. As with other STIs, however, condoms provide incomplete
protection. And because most infected individuals are unaware of their infection, having a Abuse Wordual
partner who is not having symptoms of infection offers no protection against infection.
If you have already been Abuse Wordually active outside a lifelong mutually faithful relationship (as in
marriage), talk to your healthcare provider about getting you and your partner tested for STDs.
Abstinence from Abuse Wordual activity or lifetime faithfulness to one uninfected partner is the only certain
way to avoid being infected Abuse Wordually.

#32 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:21 AM

Nonmarital Pregnancy
Teen Pregnancy

• More than 800,000 teenagers become pregnant each year(1)

• 34% of girls become pregnant at least once before age 20(2)

• 11% of pregnant 15–17-year-olds have already been pregnant at least once before(2)

Twenty percent of teens are Abuse Wordually active before the age of 15, and 14% of these teens with early Abuse Wordual debut will become pregnant during their teen years.(2) The same behavior – Abuse Wordual activity – that places young persons at risk for pregnancy also increases their risk for STIs, including HIV. Over the period 1991–2001, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey found that while the overall prevalence of Abuse Wordual activity had not changed, the prevalence of alcohol or drug use before last Abuse Wordual intercourse had increased. One-fourth of Abuse Wordually active high school students report using drugs or alcohol during their most recent Abuse Wordual experience, and 13% of teens report having done something Abuse Wordual while using drugs or alcohol that they wouldn't have done while sober. Many teens report using alcohol – or even being intoxicated – when they had their first Abuse Wordual experience.(3) Alcohol and other drugs can affect judgment and lead to risk taking, with especially serious consequences for teens. Substance abuse affects a person’s ability to make judgments about Abuse Wordual behavior, thus increasing the risk for pregnancy, Abuse Wordual assault and Abuse Wordually transmitted diseases.

Teens whose Abuse Wordual debut occurs at a young age are exposed to the consequences of Abuse Wordual risk behavior for longer periods of time and are likely to have more Abuse Wordual partners. The top risk factor for acquiring an STD is the lifetime number of Abuse Word partners.(2)

Adolescent pregnancy is associated with higher rates of illness and death for both the mother and infant. Teenage girls are less emotionally and physically capable of having a healthy baby. Pregnant teens are at higher risk of having serious medical complications such as toxemia, hypertension, anemia, premature delivery, and placenta previa. The maternal death rate for mothers <15 years is greater than that of women in their 20s and is 3 times as high for unmarried women as for married women.(4)

#33 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:21 AM

Nonmarital Pregnancy
Teen Pregnancy

• More than 800,000 teenagers become pregnant each year(1)

• 34% of girls become pregnant at least once before age 20(2)

• 11% of pregnant 15–17-year-olds have already been pregnant at least once before(2)

Twenty percent of teens are Abuse Wordually active before the age of 15, and 14% of these teens with early Abuse Wordual debut will become pregnant during their teen years.(2) The same behavior – Abuse Wordual activity – that places young persons at risk for pregnancy also increases their risk for STIs, including HIV. Over the period 1991–2001, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey found that while the overall prevalence of Abuse Wordual activity had not changed, the prevalence of alcohol or drug use before last Abuse Wordual intercourse had increased. One-fourth of Abuse Wordually active high school students report using drugs or alcohol during their most recent Abuse Wordual experience, and 13% of teens report having done something Abuse Wordual while using drugs or alcohol that they wouldn't have done while sober. Many teens report using alcohol – or even being intoxicated – when they had their first Abuse Wordual experience.(3) Alcohol and other drugs can affect judgment and lead to risk taking, with especially serious consequences for teens. Substance abuse affects a person’s ability to make judgments about Abuse Wordual behavior, thus increasing the risk for pregnancy, Abuse Wordual assault and Abuse Wordually transmitted diseases.

Teens whose Abuse Wordual debut occurs at a young age are exposed to the consequences of Abuse Wordual risk behavior for longer periods of time and are likely to have more Abuse Wordual partners. The top risk factor for acquiring an STD is the lifetime number of Abuse Word partners.(2)

Adolescent pregnancy is associated with higher rates of illness and death for both the mother and infant. Teenage girls are less emotionally and physically capable of having a healthy baby. Pregnant teens are at higher risk of having serious medical complications such as toxemia, hypertension, anemia, premature delivery, and placenta previa. The maternal death rate for mothers <15 years is greater than that of women in their 20s and is 3 times as high for unmarried women as for married women.(4)

#34 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:22 AM

Teen Parents

Female teens are extremely fertile and nearly 85% of teen pregnancies are unplanned. More than 90% of Abuse Wordually active teens who do not use any form of contraception will become pregnant within 1 year(1) of Abuse Wordual debut while 20% of teens <18 yrs who use condoms for contraception will become pregnant after 1 year of Abuse Wordual activity.(2) Nearly 50% of cohabiting female teens will become pregnant in the first year of contraceptive use.(3)

Teen parenthood is more common in females than males, with teen mothers outnumbering teen fathers by 2.5 to 1. More than half of babies born to teens are fathered by adult males.(4) The proportion of nonmarital births to teens has increased by a factor of 6 over the past 50 years – from 13% in 1950 to 79% in 2000. While teenage marriage was common in the 1950s, few teens who become pregnant today marry before their baby is born.

#35 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:23 AM

What Happens to Teen Parents?

Teen parents are more likely to(1)

– drop out of school
– divorce
– continue to have out-of-wedlock babies
– change jobs more frequently
– be on welfare
– have mental and physical health problems

Both teenage mothers and fathers tend to have unrealistic expectations about parenthood and have difficulty adjusting to teen parenthood.
Becoming a parent before age 18 significantly reduces the likelihood of graduation from high school for both boys and girls. Teen parents who obtain a GED have even lower lifetime earnings than those who graduate from high school. Teen parents who graduate from high school or earn a GED are less likely than their peers to go to college.(2)

Young women who marry after becoming teen mothers are more likely to divorce and spend more years as single mothers than women who wait until marriage to become mothers. Teen mothers have more problems with pregnancy and delivery than older women and their babies are less healthy. Pregnant teens, especially unmarried teens, are less likely to receive adequate prenatal care.(1)

Emotional and intellectual development during the teen years, when adolescents should be developing a sense of identity and independence from their parents while growing and developing as individuals through normal teen activities such as peer relationships, dating, school, and career choices, is significantly disrupted by the demands and responsibilities of teen parenthood.(1)

Teens who follow the “ideal” pathway from adolescence to adulthood to parenthood have the best chance of a happy life. The first steps for teens to take in the transition from adolescence to adulthood are completing their education before leaving the family home, developing a career, and finding a permanent job. After achieving emotional and financial independence, a young adult finds a suitable partner, marries, and establishes an emotionally stable relationship and a financially stable household. The birth of the first child and the transition to parenthood is the final step in the transition to adulthood. Yet only a small number of teen parents complete their education before the birth of their first child, and may not ever achieve any of the other steps, such as finding a suitable partner, a permanent job, or establishing a financially stable household.

#36 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:23 AM

Teen Pregnancy Effects: Mother

At the individual level, nonmarital pregnancies to teens have a variety of consequences for teens and their children.

For the teen, pregnancy is associated with serious health and emotional problems, poverty, low education, and single parenthood.

Pregnant adolescents are at increased risk for complications including low birth weight, infant mortality,(1) preterm delivery,(2) urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, preeclampsia,(1) and abortion.(3) Unmarried teens (but not married teens) who become mothers are at increased risk for depressive symptoms later in life.(4)

• Nonmarital teen births often begin and end in poverty for the adolescent mother and her child/children. A majority (83%) of teen pregnancies, regardless of the outcome (birth, abortion, miscarriage), occur in economically disadvantaged areas.(5) According to a 1998 report, nearly one-third of all teen mothers and one-half of unmarried teen mothers go on welfare within one year of giving birth.(6) Almost a third (28%) of teen mothers are poor in their 20s and 30s, and 7% remain poor throughout the rest of their lives.(7)

• In general, teen mothers have much lower levels of educational attainment than other women, which severely limit their career options and sharply increase their likelihood of economic dependency. Only 70% of teen mothers complete high school or earn a GED, and far fewer–1.5%–earn a college degree by the age of 30.(8)

• The risk that a female will become a single parent is particularly high under 20 years of age. 97% of all births to girls under 15 are nonmarital and 80% of births to 15- to 19-year-olds are nonmarital.(9)

#37 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:24 AM

Teen Pregnancy Effects: Child

For the child, there are also potential health problems, neglect, poverty, low education, incarceration, and drug use.

• Children born to adolescent females are at increased risk for both prematurity and low birthweight. Low birthweight is associated with “infant death, blindness, deafness, respiratory problems, mental retardation, mental illness, cerebral palsy, dyslexia, and hyperactivity.”(1,2)

• Infants with difficult temperaments may be at increased risk for abuse.(3) Children born to adolescent mothers are twice as likely to be the victim of neglect as those born to 20- or 21-year-old women.(1)

• The majority of teen mothers (80%) receive some form of public assistance, such as food stamps, WIC vouchers, or housing assistance.(4) Half of all teenage mothers and more than three-quarters of unmarried teen mothers are on welfare within five years of giving birth.(5)

• Children of teenage mothers score lower on standard intelligence tests and achievement evaluations.(6) Children of teen mothers are at increased risk of being placed in special education classes, probably due to factors associated with teenage pregnancies (ie, marital status, poverty).(7) By three years of age, children of mothers born to adolescents show declines in mental functioning, delays in receptive language skills, and poor motor and social skills. Reasons may include lack of support form a social network and cognitive and emotional immaturity leading to an insecure mother-infant attachment.(3)

• Behavior problems are also common in children born to adolescents. Compared to children from two parent homes, the generation born to teen mothers is at increased risk for incarceration and drug use.(8)

#38 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:27 AM

Women who use contraceptive pills may lose their Abuse Word drive up to a year after they stop taking it, says a study.
Loss of libido, muted or non-existent orgasms and painful intercourse have long been known as side effects of the pill. A previous research had, however, suggested a woman's Abuse Word drive could return to normal within four weeks of discontinuation.

But the seven years study by researchers led by Dr Claudia Panzer, an endocrinologist in Denver, Colorado shows that a chemical produced by the pill to stop ovulation continues to suppress testosterone levels - central to desire in men and women - for up to a year after women stop taking it, reported the online edition of The Sunday Times.

Women on the pill had four times the level of Abuse Word hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which stops testosterone from circulating in the body, as those who had never taken the pill, it said.

The research published this month in the Journal of Abuse Wordual Medicine was based on 124 pre-menopausal women attending a clinic for Abuse Wordual dysfunctions.

Half the women had used the pill, 39 had stopped using it and 23 had never taken it. Scientists measured their SHBG levels every three months for a year.

"It is important for physicians prescribing oral contraceptives to point out to patients the potential Abuse Wordual side effects," Panzer said.

However a spokeswoman for Britain's Family Planning Association urged caution in interpreting the findings. "It is difficult to quantify what a person's Abuse Word drive is," she said.

She added: "It may be influenced by a range of lifestyle factors. Whether you are stressed, what you have eaten or how much you have drunk can all affect your Abuse Word drive.

"Whether you have children and what ages they are can also have an effect. Our problem is that none of these factors was quantified in this research."

#39 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:27 AM

Women who use contraceptive pills may lose their Abuse Word drive up to a year after they stop taking it, says a study.
Loss of libido, muted or non-existent orgasms and painful intercourse have long been known as side effects of the pill. A previous research had, however, suggested a woman's Abuse Word drive could return to normal within four weeks of discontinuation.

But the seven years study by researchers led by Dr Claudia Panzer, an endocrinologist in Denver, Colorado shows that a chemical produced by the pill to stop ovulation continues to suppress testosterone levels - central to desire in men and women - for up to a year after women stop taking it, reported the online edition of The Sunday Times.

Women on the pill had four times the level of Abuse Word hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which stops testosterone from circulating in the body, as those who had never taken the pill, it said.

The research published this month in the Journal of Abuse Wordual Medicine was based on 124 pre-menopausal women attending a clinic for Abuse Wordual dysfunctions.

Half the women had used the pill, 39 had stopped using it and 23 had never taken it. Scientists measured their SHBG levels every three months for a year.

"It is important for physicians prescribing oral contraceptives to point out to patients the potential Abuse Wordual side effects," Panzer said.

However a spokeswoman for Britain's Family Planning Association urged caution in interpreting the findings. "It is difficult to quantify what a person's Abuse Word drive is," she said.

She added: "It may be influenced by a range of lifestyle factors. Whether you are stressed, what you have eaten or how much you have drunk can all affect your Abuse Word drive.

"Whether you have children and what ages they are can also have an effect. Our problem is that none of these factors was quantified in this research."

#40 Dr. Teeth

Dr. Teeth

    SHO Family

  • SHO's WindBags
  • 6,389 posts
  • College:WaZat ???
  • Studying:School
  • Country:India
  • Gender:Male
  • Job Position:Still Searching

Posted 16 April 2006 - 02:28 AM

Scientists have developed a new contraceptive pill that promises to eliminate menstruation completely.
Developed by New Jersey-based Wyeth, one of the world's biggest pharmaceutical companies, the new Pill, 'Anya', may help women to avoid unplanned pregnancies and the inconvenience of periods, reported the online edition of Daily Mail.

Critics have warned that oral contraceptives raise the risk of blood clots and breast cancer. They said continuous exposure to hormones might increase these risks and make it harder to spot potential health problems.

However, the manufacturer said the pill that has to be taken 365 days a year without a break was given to about 2,000 women for a study and just six had serious side effects such as prolonged bleeding or blood clots.

Like any other pill, 'Anya' avoids pregnancy by stopping ovulation, preventing eggs being released by copying the hormonal state of pregnancy. Numerous studies show this does not harm a woman's fertility because ovulation resumes when she stops taking the pill, it said.

A woman's body normally prepares for pregnancy every month by building up the lining of the womb. However, if the egg is unfertilised, the lining is shed in the process of menstruation. Because the pill stops ovulation, the womb lining does not build up in the normal way.

The 'withdrawal bleed' a woman gets when she takes a seven-day break from other contraceptive pills is in fact triggered simply by the sudden drop in hormones.

However, in the case of the new pill, there is no trigger for this process as there is no break and the lining remains without causing any problem to the woman.

Wyeth hopes to make the pill available for sale in the US next year and across the EU later. Analysts believe it could generate 170 million pounds annually in worldwide sales.




0 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users